KENNY BEGINS

Kenny Begins[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Kenny Begins
Genre Action/Komedi/Science Fiction
Regissör Carl Åstrand
Mats Lindberg
Producent Patrick Ryborn
Manus Carl Åstrand, Mats Lindberg, Lars Johansson
Originalmusik Clarence Öfwerman
Fotograf Göran Hallberg
Produktionsbolag S/S Fladen Film
Nordisk Film
Premiär 2009
Speltid 88 minuter
Land Sverige
Språk Svenska
Budget 34 miljoner SEK
Intäkter 9 426 328 SEK[1]
IMDb

Kenny Begins är en svensk långfilm från 2009. Filmen är en prequel till TV-serien Kenny Starfighter (1997) och hade för Sverige en stor budget på hela 34 miljoner kronor.[2] Filmen hade biopremiär den 25 mars, men en smygpremiär gavs redan den 21 mars, på ett fåtal biografer.

Handling[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Filmen börjar med att Kenny Starfighter (Johan Rheborg), som gått om på Galaxhjälteakademin flera år, ska göra sitt examensprov. Då familjen inte har råd att låta honom gå kvar är alternativet om han misslyckas att bli frisör i familjesalongen. I examensprovet, som är en poängjakt där eleverna får poäng för allt från att ta fast en fortkörare till att rädda universum, kraschlandar Kenny av misstag på jorden efter att ha jagat en fortkörare. På jorden råkar han ihop med Pontus (Bill Skarsgård), en haltande femtonåring med glasögon som mobbas i skolan. Då han gömt sig för sina mobbare har Pontus råkat komma i kontakt med en grön kraftkristall, som han vidrört och således fått övermänskliga krafter. Kristallen är dock hett eftertraktad av universums intelligentaste man, Rutger Oversmart (Jan Mybrand), som vill ha den för att också bli universums mäktigaste man. Via ett hemligt övervakningssystem lyckas Rutger få reda på att Pontus tömt kristallen på energi i samband med att han vidrört den, och han skickar därför tre prisjägare, Earth, Wind och Fire, att ta fast Pontus, så att han ska kunna dra ut kristallens energi ur honom. Filmens huvudhandling är kampen mellan å ena sidan Kenny, Pontus och hans skolkamrat Miranda (Carla Abrahamsen), och å andra sidan Rutger Oversmart och hans hantlangare, inklusive prisjägarna.

Rollista[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Skådespelare Roll
Johan Rheborg Kenny Starfighter
Per Mårtenson Benny Starfighter
Sissela Kyle Jenny Starfighter
Björn Gustafsson Lenny Starfighter
Pernilla August Rektor
Bill Skarsgård Pontus
Carla Abrahamsen Miranda
Jan Mybrand Rutger Oversmart
Johan Glans Kapten Kaos
Brasse Brännström General Sudoku
Per Ragnar Kejsar Zing
Cecilia Frode Underhuggare 1
Per Svensson Underhuggare 2
Josephine Bornebusch Underhuggare 3
Nils Kärnekull Sudokus assistent
Sten Elfström Vaktmästare
Kalle Moraeus Rymdbrottsling
Rosie Anderberg Earth
Yan Kai Yu Wind
Hayes Jemide Fire

Övriga roller[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Se även[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ Svenska Filminstitutet. ”Statistik”. Svenska Filminstitutet. Läst 14 februari 2014.
  2. ^ Fristorp, Mimmi (20 mars 2009). ”Med hårtorken som rymdvapen”. Dagens Nyheter. Läst 12 april 2010.

Externa länkar[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Annonser

KODER

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class=’side‘>

class=’text‘>fields

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class=’fields block‘>
class=’highlight‘>9 of
class=’highlight‘>229

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Terraform Now!

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35000 credits

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Assign Builders
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Assign Builders
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Assign Builders

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130

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class=’resource left‘>Crystal
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43

class=’clear‘>

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class=’amount right‘>
20

class=’clear‘>

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class=’energy block‘>
class=”value”>
class=’highlight‘>58 of
class=’highlight‘>161

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class=’energy_free block‘>
class=’highlight4‘>
103
Extraclass=”energy_label”> Energy

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level class=”amount”>2

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<span id=’buy_commander_4_402273class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Geologist for +10% Mining Bonus</a></span>

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class=’description‘>Produces ore, the fundamental building block of society.

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value=”90”>90%
value=”80”>80%
value=”70”>70%
value=”60”>60%
value=”50”>50%
value=”40”>40%
value=”30”>30%
value=”20”>20%
value=”10”>10%
value=”0”>0%

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class=’text‘>Assign Miners
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class=”row production”>

class=’data label‘>Production:

class=’data amount‘>
130
class=’of‘>of 130

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class=’data amount‘>
25 class=’of‘>of 25

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class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 3
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 3
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
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class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 3

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:03:36

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>135

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>34

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header production”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data production”>

class=”data label”>Ore:

class=”data amount”>
+73/hr

</div>

class=”row data production negative”>

class=”data label”>Energy:

class=”data amount”>
-15/hr

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location mine item workers_altid=’location_10112093‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Crystal_mineclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/mine_templates/crystal_mine.jpg?1471966992title=”Produces crystal, used in computers and other technology.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_1231520105onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/1231520105?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_1231520105’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Crystal Mine

class=’level‘>
level class=”amount”>1

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_4_769574class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Geologist for +10% Mining Bonus</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Produces crystal, used in computers and other technology.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row capacity”>

class=’data label‘>Capacity:

class=’data amount‘>
class=”capacity_selectid=”capacity_modifiername=”capacity_modifieronchange=”disable_ajax_links(); new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/change_capacity_modifier/10112093?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true, parameters:Form.Element.serialize(this)})”>value=”100selected=”selected”>100%
value=”90”>90%
value=”80”>80%
value=”70”>70%
value=”60”>60%
value=”50”>50%
value=”40”>40%
value=”30”>30%
value=”20”>20%
value=”10”>10%
value=”0”>0%

class=’data assign_workersrowspan=’3‘>

class=’assign_miners secondary‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#id=”assign_miners_10112093onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/unassigned/assign?current_planet=414439&filter=mining_percent_bonus&html_id=assign_miners_10112093&ref_action=index&ref_controller=buildings%2Fhome&to_location=10112093’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners

</div>
</div>

class=”row production”>

class=’data label‘>Production:

class=’data amount‘>
43
class=’of‘>of 43

</div>

class=”row energy”>

class=’data label‘>Energy:

class=’data amount‘>
11 class=’of‘>of 11

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112093?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:01:48

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>77

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>39

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header production”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data production”>

class=”data label”>Crystal:

class=”data amount”>
+38/hr

</div>

class=”row data production negative”>

class=”data label”>Energy:

class=”data amount”>
-14/hr

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location mine item altid=’location_10112094‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Hydrogen_synthesizerclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/mine_templates/hydrogen_synthesizer.jpg?1471966992title=”Produces hydrogen gas, used in fusion engines that power cities and ships.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_763367886onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/763367886?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_763367886’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Hydrogen Refinery

class=’level‘>
level class=”amount”>1

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_4_218898class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Geologist for +10% Mining Bonus</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Produces hydrogen gas, used in fusion engines that power cities and ships.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row capacity”>

class=’data label‘>Capacity:

class=’data amount‘>
class=”capacity_selectid=”capacity_modifiername=”capacity_modifieronchange=”disable_ajax_links(); new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/change_capacity_modifier/10112094?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true, parameters:Form.Element.serialize(this)})”>value=”100selected=”selected”>100%
value=”90”>90%
value=”80”>80%
value=”70”>70%
value=”60”>60%
value=”50”>50%
value=”40”>40%
value=”30”>30%
value=”20”>20%
value=”10”>10%
value=”0”>0%

class=’data assign_workersrowspan=’3‘>

class=’assign_miners secondary‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#id=”assign_miners_10112094onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/unassigned/assign?current_planet=414439&filter=mining_percent_bonus&html_id=assign_miners_10112094&ref_action=index&ref_controller=buildings%2Fhome&to_location=10112094’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Assign Miners

</div>
</div>

class=”row production”>

class=’data label‘>Production:

class=’data amount‘>
20
class=’of‘>of 20

</div>

class=”row energy”>

class=’data label‘>Energy:

class=’data amount‘>
22 class=’of‘>of 22

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112094?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 2

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:09:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>338

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>113

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header production”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data production”>

class=”data label”>Hydro.:

class=”data amount”>
+25/hr

</div>

class=”row data production negative”>

class=”data label”>Energy:

class=”data amount”>
-27/hr

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location power_plant item alt workers_altid=’location_10112095‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Solar_plantclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/power_plant_templates/solar_plant.jpg?1471966992title=”Produces the electricity that powers your mines and buildings.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_1639156025onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/1639156025?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_1639156025’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Solar Array

class=’level‘>
level class=”amount”>5

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_6_106236class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire an Engineer for +10% Energy</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Produces the electricity that powers your mines and buildings.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row solar_plant production”>

class=”data label”>Energy Production:

class=”data amount”>161

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112095?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 6
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 6
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Upgradeclass=’to_level‘> to level 6

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:14:24

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>570

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>228

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header production”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data production”>

class=”data label”>Energy:

class=”data amount”>
+51/hr

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item altid=’location_10112083‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Capitolclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/capitol.jpg?1471966992title=”Each level of capitol decreases the build time of all buildings and mines.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_788502313onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/788502313?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_788502313’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Capitol

class=’clear‘>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Each level of capitol decreases the build time of all buildings and mines.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112083?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:09:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>400

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>120

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>200

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item workers_altid=’location_10112084‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Research_labclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/research_lab.jpg?1471966992title=”This is where you research new technologies and upgrade existing ones. These will improve your current units and unlock new ones.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_1421889140onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/1421889140?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_1421889140’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Research Lab

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_8_573777class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Scientist for 25% Faster Research</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>This is where you research new technologies and upgrade existing ones. These will improve your current units and unlock new ones.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112084?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:10:48

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>200

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>400

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>200

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item altid=’location_10112086‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Factoryclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/factory.jpg?1471966992title=”This is where droids are produced and managed.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_2067144442onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/2067144442?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_2067144442’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Factory

class=’clear‘>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>This is where droids are produced and managed.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112086?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:09:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>400

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>120

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>200

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item workers_altid=’location_10112087‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Ore_storageclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/ore_storage.jpg?1471966992title=”The Ore Warehouse storage facility for the precious metals you receive from mining. Expanding it allows your mines to keep producing vital Ore to ever higher capacities.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_2067144444onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/2067144444?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_2067144444’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Ore Warehouse

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_26_815911class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Logistics Specialist to Store More Resources</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>The Ore Warehouse storage facility for the precious metals you receive from mining. Expanding it allows your mines to keep producing vital Ore to ever higher capacities.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row solar_plant production”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>100,000

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112087?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:36:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>2,000

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header capacity”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data capacity”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>+50,000

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item altid=’location_10112088‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Crystal_storageclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/crystal_storage.jpg?1471966992title=”The Crystal Warehouse, when built on your planet, allows you to keep larger amounts of Crystal produced from mines.width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
href=”#id=”info_link_2067144446onclick=”new Ajax.Request(‘/building_info/show/2067144446?current_planet=414439&html_id=info_link_2067144446’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”>Crystal Warehouse

class=’clear‘>

<span id=’buy_commander_26_957838class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Logistics Specialist to Store More Resources</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>The Crystal Warehouse, when built on your planet, allows you to keep larger amounts of Crystal produced from mines.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row solar_plant production”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>100,000

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
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class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:54:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>2,000

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>1,000

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header capacity”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data capacity”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>+50,000

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item workers_altid=’location_10112089‘>

class=’data image‘>
alt=”Hydrogen_storageclass=”item_imageheight=”100src=”/images/syfy/building_templates/hydrogen_storage.jpg?1471966992title=”Hydrogen is a volatile resource, so a special Hydrogen Storage tank is required in order to keep larger quantities of it on hand. width=”100” />
alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

class=’data details‘>

class=’name‘>
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<span id=’buy_commander_26_602895class=’commander‘><a href=”/credits?cost=10000&amp;current_planet=414439”>Hire a Logistics Specialist to Store More Resources</a></span>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Hydrogen is a volatile resource, so a special Hydrogen Storage tank is required in order to keep larger quantities of it on hand.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row solar_plant production”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>100,000

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabled‘>
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class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>01:12:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>2,000

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>2,000

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>0

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header capacity”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data capacity”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>+50,000

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’row location building item altid=’location_10112091‘>

class=’data image‘>
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alt=”Black_70class=”overlay_imagesrc=”/images/syfy/layout/black_70.png?1471966992” />

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class=’clear‘>

class=’rollover‘>

class=’inner_rollover‘>

class=’description‘>Use this building to hide away resources that can not be plundered in a battle.

</div>
</div>

class=’stats‘>

class=”table”>

class=”row solar_plant production”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>0

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=’data actions‘>

class=’action_link‘>
class=’ ajax_link‘>
class=’active‘>
class=’enabledstyle=’display: none;‘>
href=”#onclick=”disable_ajax_links();; new Ajax.Request(‘/buildings/home/build/10112091?current_planet=414439’, {asynchronous:true, evalScripts:true}); return false;”> class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’disabled‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build
class=’waitingstyle=’display: none;‘>
class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Build

class=’cost_content‘>

class=”cost_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row time cost”>

class=”data label”>Time:

class=”data amount”>00:36:00

</div>

class=’row ore cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Ore:

class=’data amount‘>1,000

</div>

class=’row crystal cost‘>

class=’data label‘>Crystal:

class=’data amount‘>1,000

</div>

class=’row hydrogen cost cannot_afford‘>

class=’data label‘>Hydrogen:

class=’data amount‘>1,000

</div>

class=”clear”>

class=”row space”>

class=”data”>

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>

class=”production_table”>

class=”table”>

class=”row header capacity”>

class=”data headercolspan=”2”>
Production

</div>

class=”row data capacity”>

class=”data label”>Capacity:

class=”data amount”>+30,000

</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

class=”clear”>

</div>

class=’clear‘>

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<h2>Quests</h2>

class=”pane left”>

class=”description”>

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class=”name”>

id=”quest_name”>

id=”quest_descriptionclass=”content”>

class=”clear”>

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Objectives

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id=”walk_through_dot_1class=’dot‘>

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<tr id=”walkthrough_step_row_2class=’walkthrough_step_row‘>
<td>

id=”walk_through_dot_2class=’dot‘>

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<td id=”walk_through_2”></td>
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Rewards

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class=’text‘>Claim Reward
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class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Claim Reward
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class=’button‘>
class=’text‘>Claim Reward

class=”quest_rewards”>

id=”reward_0class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
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class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_0class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_0class=”description”>

</div>

id=”reward_1class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
alt=”” data-default=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992id=”quest_reward_icon_1src=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992title=”” />

class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_1class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_1class=”description”>

</div>

id=”reward_2class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
alt=”” data-default=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992id=”quest_reward_icon_2src=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992title=”” />

class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_2class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_2class=”description”>

</div>

id=”reward_3class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
alt=”” data-default=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992id=”quest_reward_icon_3src=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992title=”” />

class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_3class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_3class=”description”>

</div>

id=”reward_4class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
alt=”” data-default=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992id=”quest_reward_icon_4src=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992title=”” />

class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_4class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_4class=”description”>

</div>

id=”reward_5class=”reward”>

class=”icon”>
alt=”” data-default=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992id=”quest_reward_icon_5src=”/images/syfy/rewards/blank.png?1471966992title=”” />

class=”label”>
id=”quest_reward_amount_5class=”amount”>
id=”quest_reward_description_5class=”description”>

</div>
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class=”clear”>

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class=”quest_container”>

id=”side_tabsclass=”side_tabs”>

id=”side_tab_allclass=”side_tab activedata-title=”All Quests”>
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class=”next”>
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</div>

class=”quests one_time”>

class=”quest header”>

id=”quest_popup_title”>All Quests

class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_0onclick=”; return false;”>

class=”recommended_icon”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_1onclick=”; return false;”>

class=”recommended_icon”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_2onclick=”; return false;”>

class=”recommended_icon”>

</div>

class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_3onclick=”; return false;”>

class=”recommended_icon”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_4onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_5onclick=”; return false;”>

class=”recommended_icon”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_6onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_7onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_8onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_9onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_10onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest”>
class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_11onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_12onclick=”; return false;”>

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class=”quest_entryhref=”#id=”quest_entry_13onclick=”; return false;”>

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LÄNKAR

CurV = GetHandl {ssm.dt} tempRgn {itm.dd2}
CurV = GetHandl {ssd.itl} tempRgn” {itm.dd4}
On DrawMeter(!gN) set shp_val.obj to lim (Val{d})-Xval.
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return.
If Meterhandl(vGT) ((DrawBack(tY)) return
LimitDat.4 = maxbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat5 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On White_rbt.obj call link.sst {security, perimeter} set to off.
VertRange = {maxRange+setlim} tempVgn(fdn-&bb+$404).
HorRange = {maxRange-setlim/2} tempHgn(fdn-&dd+$105).
Void DrawMeter send_screen.obj print.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
{limiDat=dat.serv. obj-file}

CORECODES

CurV = GetHandl {ssm.dt} tempRgn {itm.dd2}
CurV = GetHandl {ssd.itl} tempRgn” {itm.dd4}
On DrawMeter(!gN) set shp_val.obj to lim (Val{d})-Xval.
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return.
If Meterhandl(vGT) ((DrawBack(tY)) return
LimitDat.4 = maxbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat5 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On White_rbt.obj call link.sst {security, perimeter} set to off.
VertRange = {maxRange+setlim} tempVgn(fdn-&bb+$404).
HorRange = {maxRange-setlim/2} tempHgn(fdn-&dd+$105).
Void DrawMeter send_screen.obj print.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
{limiDat=dat.serv. obj-file}

SOMMARLOVSPROGRAM

Sommarlovsprogram[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Sommarlovsprogram
Genre Barn
Land Sverige Sverige
Språk Svenska
Sändning
Originalkanal SVT
Originalvisning 1978

Sommarlovsprogram är ett årligt återkommande barnprogram för sommarlovslediga barn som Sveriges Television sänder kl 09.00 – 10.00 i Barnkanalen veckans alla dagar(även på midsommarafton), på senare år vanligtvis sänt av SVT Malmö. Sommarlovsprogrammen är sommarens motsvarighet till jullovsmorgon. Sommarlovsprogrammen hade 40–45 avsnitt t.o.m. 2006. Fr.o.m. 2007 har programmen 50 avsnitt och sedan 2011 sänds programmen 7 dagar i veckan och ca 70 avsnitt. Dessutom kan man sedan dess se programmet i repris på kvällen. Under de första åren bestod ”Sommarmorgon”, som då var den återkommande rubriken, av kortfilmer och serier utan någon ramberättelse som knyter ihop dem. Mot slutet av 1980-talet ändrades detta och sedan 1990-talet presenteras det vanligen ett gäng programledare som antingen spelar olika roller eller är sig själva.

Vanligtvis består programmet av förinspelade delar som kretsar kring den pågående berättelsen och en direktsänd interaktiv del som innefattar tävlingar, till vilka barnen kan skicka in teckningar, ringa in eller vara med själva i programmet. 2000 testades ett nytt grepp där man lät telefonsamtalen påverka handlingen.

Utöver detta innefattar sommarslovsprogrammen avsnitt ur olika TV-serier för barn (i många fall tecknade).

Sommarlovsprogram genom åren[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Källor: [1]

Se även[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Källor[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ Byström Matilda, (2013-06-03): ”Vilket var ditt bästa sommarlov?”. Svt.se. Läst 26 oktober 2014.

UNIX

UNIX For Beginners — Second Edition
Brian W. Kernighan
ABSTRACT
This paper is meant to help new users get started on the UNIXoperating system. It includes:
basics needed for day-to-day use of the system — typing commands, correcting typing mistakes, logging in and out, mail, inter-terminal communication, the file system, printing files, redirecting I/O, pipes, and the shell. document preparation — a brief discussion of the major formatting programs and macro packages, hints on preparing documents, and capsule descriptions of some supporting software. UNIX programming — using the editor, programming the shell, programming in C, other languages and tools. An annotated UNIX bibliography.
INTRODUCTION
From the user’s point of view, the UNIX operating system is easy to learn and use, and presents few of the usual impediments to getting the job done. It is hard, however, for the beginner to know where to start, and how to make the best use of the facilities available. The purpose of this introduction is to help new users get used to the main ideas of the UNIX system and start making effective use of it quickly.
You should have a couple of other documents with you for easy reference as you read this one. The most important is The UNIX Programmer’s Manual; it’s often easier to tell you to read about something in the manual than to repeat its contents here. The other useful document is A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor, which will tell you how to use the editor to get text — programs, data, documents — into the computer.
A word of warning: the UNIX system has become quite popular, and there are several major variants in widespread use. Of course details also change with time. So although the basic structure of UNIX and how to use it is common to all versions, there will certainly be a few things which are different on your system from what is described here. We have tried to minimize the problem, but be aware of it. In cases of doubt, this paper describes Version 7 UNIX.
This paper has five sections:
Getting Started: How to log in, how to type, what to do about mistakes in typing, how to log out. Some of this is dependent on which system you log into (phone numbers, for example) and what terminal you use, so this section must necessarily be supplemented by local information.
1.
Day-to-day Use: Things you need every day to use the system effectively: generally useful commands; the file system.
2.
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Document Preparation: Preparing manuscripts is one of the most common uses for UNIX systems. This section contains advice, but not extensive instructions on any of the formatting tools.
3.
Writing Programs: UNIX is an excellent system for developing programs. This section talks about some of the tools, but again is not a tutorial in any of the programming languages provided by the system.
4.
A UNIX Reading List. An annotated bibliography of documents that new users should be aware of.
5.
I. GETTING STARTED
Logging In
You must have a UNIX login name, which you can get from whoever administers your system. You also need to know the phone number, unless your system uses permanently connected terminals. The UNIX system is capable of dealing with a wide variety of terminals: Terminet 300’s; Execuport, TI and similar portables; video (CRT) terminals like the HP2640, etc.; high-priced graphics terminals like the Tektronix 4014; plotting terminals like those from GSI and DASI; and even the venerable Teletype in its various forms. But note: UNIX is strongly oriented towards devices with lower case. If your terminal produces only upper case (e.g., model 33 Teletype, some video and portable terminals), life will be so difficult that you should look for another terminal.
Be sure to set the switches appropriately on your device. Switches that might need to be adjusted include the speed, upper/lower case mode, full duplex, even parity, and any others that local wisdom advises. Establish a connection using whatever magic is needed for your terminal; this may involve dialing a telephone call or merely flipping a switch. In either case, UNIX should type ”login:” at you. If it types garbage, you may be at the wrong speed; check the switches. If that fails, push the ”break” or ”interrupt” key a few times, slowly. If that fails to produce a login message, consult a guru.
When you get a login: message, type your login name in lower case. Follow it by a RETURN; the system will not do anything until you type a RETURN. If a password is required, you will be asked for it, and (if possible) printing will be turned off while you type it. Don’t forget RETURN.
The culmination of your login efforts is a ”prompt character,” a single character that indicates that the system is ready to accept commands from you. The prompt character is usually a dollar sign $ or a percent sign %. (You may also get a message of the day just before the prompt character, or a notification that you have mail.)
Typing Commands
Once you’ve seen the prompt character, you can type commands, which are requests that the system do something. Try typing
date
followed by RETURN. You should get back something like
Mon Jan 16 14:17:10 EST 1978
Don’t forget the RETURN after the command, or nothing will happen. If you think you’re being ignored,
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type a RETURN; something should happen. RETURN won’t be mentioned again, but don’t forget it — it has to be there at the end of each line.
Another command you might try is who, which tells you everyone who is currently logged in:
who
gives something like
mb tty01 Jan 16 09:11 ski tty05 Jan 16 09:33 gam tty11 Jan 16 13:07
The time is when the user logged in; ”ttyxx” is the system’s idea of what terminal the user is on.
If you make a mistake typing the command name, and refer to a non-existent command, you will be told. For example, if you type
whom
you will be told
whom: not found
Of course, if you inadvertently type the name of some other command, it will run, with more or less mysterious results.
Strange Terminal Behavior
Sometimes you can get into a state where your terminal acts strangely. For example, each letter may be typed twice, or the RETURN may not cause a line feed or a return to the left margin. You can often fix this by logging out and logging back in. Or you can read the description of the command stty in section I of the manual. To get intelligent treatment of tab characters (which are much used in UNIX) if your terminal doesn’t have tabs, type the command
stty -tabs
and the system will convert each tab into the right number of blanks for you. If your terminal does have computer-settable tabs, the command tabs will set the stops correctly for you.
Mistakes in Typing
If you make a typing mistake, and see it before RETURN has been typed, there are two ways to recover. The sharp-character # erases the last character typed; in fact successive uses of # erase characters back to the beginning of the line (but not beyond). So if you type badly, you can correct as you go:
dd#atte##e
is the same as date.
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The at-sign @ erases all of the characters typed so far on the current input line, so if the line is irretrievably fouled up, type an @ and start the line over.
What if you must enter a sharp or at-sign as part of the text? If you precede either # or @ by a backslash \, it loses its erase meaning. So to enter a sharp or at-sign in something, type \# or \@. The system will always echo a newline at you after your at-sign, even if preceded by a backslash. Don’t worry — the at-sign has been recorded.
To erase a backslash, you have to type two sharps or two at-signs, as in \##. The backslash is used extensively in UNIX to indicate that the following character is in some way special.
Read-ahead
UNIX has full read-ahead, which means that you can type as fast as you want, whenever you want, even when some command is typing at you. If you type during output, your input characters will appear intermixed with the output characters, but they will be stored away and interpreted in the correct order. So you can type several commands one after another without waiting for the first to finish or even begin.
Stopping a Program
You can stop most programs by typing the character ”DEL” (perhaps called ”delete” or ”rubout” on your terminal). The ”interrupt” or ”break” key found on most terminals can also be used. In a few programs, like the text editor, DEL stops whatever the program is doing but leaves you in that program. Hanging up the phone will stop most programs.
Logging Out
The easiest way to log out is to hang up the phone. You can also type
login
and let someone else use the terminal you were on. It is usually not sufficient just to turn off the terminal. Most UNIX systems do not use a time-out mechanism, so you’ll be there forever unless you hang up.
Mail
When you log in, you may sometimes get the message
You have mail.
UNIX provides a postal system so you can communicate with other users of the system. To read your mail, type the command
mail
Your mail will be printed, one message at a time, most recent message first. After each message, mail waits for you to say what to do with it. The two basic responses are d, which deletes the message, and RETURN, which does not (so it will still be there the next time you read your mailbox). Other responses
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are described in the manual. (Earlier versions of mail do not process one message at a time, but are otherwise similar.)
How do you send mail to someone else? Suppose it is to go to ”joe” (assuming ”joe” is someone’s login name). The easiest way is this:
mail joe now type in the text of the letter on as many lines as you like … After the last line of the letter type the character ”control-d”, that is, hold down ”control” and type a letter ”d”.
And that’s it. The ”control-d” sequence, often called ”EOF” for end-of-file, is used throughout the system to mark the end of input from a terminal, so you might as well get used to it.
For practice, send mail to yourself. (This isn’t as strange as it might sound — mail to oneself is a handy reminder mechanism.)
There are other ways to send mail — you can send a previously prepared letter, and you can mail to a number of people all at once. For more details see mail(1). (The notation mail(1) means the command mail in section 1 of the UNIX Programmer’s Manual.)
Writing to other users
At some point, out of the blue will come a message like
Message from joe tty07…
accompanied by a startling beep. It means that Joe wants to talk to you, but unless you take explicit action you won’t be able to talk back. To respond, type the command
write joe
This establishes a two-way communication path. Now whatever Joe types on his terminal will appear on yours and vice versa. The path is slow, rather like talking to the moon. (If you are in the middle of something, you have to get to a state where you can type a command. Normally, whatever program you are running has to terminate or be terminated. If you’re editing, you can escape temporarily from the editor — read the editor tutorial.)
A protocol is needed to keep what you type from getting garbled up with what Joe types. Typically it’s like this:
Joe types write smith and waits. Smith types write joe and waits. Joe now types his message (as many lines as he likes). When he’s ready for a reply, he signals it by typing (o), which stands for ”over”. Now Smith types a reply, also terminated by (o). This cycle repeats until someone gets tired; he then signals his intent to quit with (oo), for ”over
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and out”. To terminate the conversation, each side must type a ”control-d” character alone on a line. (”Delete” also works.) When the other person types his ”control-d”, you will get the message EOF on your terminal.
If you write to someone who isn’t logged in, or who doesn’t want to be disturbed, you’ll be told. If the target is logged in but doesn’t answer after a decent interval, simply type ”control-d”.
On-line Manual
The UNIX Programmer’s Manual is typically kept on-line. If you get stuck on something, and can’t find an expert to assist you, you can print on your terminal some manual section that might help. This is also useful for getting the most up-to-date information on a command. To print a manual section, type ”man command-name”. Thus to read up on the who command, type
man who
and, of course,
man man
tells all about the man command.
Computer Aided Instruction
Your UNIX system may have available a program called learn, which provides computer aided instruction on the file system and basic commands, the editor, document preparation, and even C programming. Try typing the command
learn
If learn exists on your system, it will tell you what to do from there.
II. DAY-TO-DAY USE
Creating Files — The Editor
If you have to type a paper or a letter or a program, how do you get the information stored in the machine? Most of these tasks are done with the UNIX ”text editor” ed. Since ed is thoroughly documented in ed(1) and explained in A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor, we won’t spend any time here describing how to use it. All we want it for right now is to make some files. (A file is just a collection of information stored in the machine, a simplistic but adequate definition.)
To create a file called junk with some text in it, do the following:
ed junk (invokes the text editor) a (command to ”ed”, to add text) now type in whatever text you want …
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. (signals the end of adding text)
The ”.” that signals the end of adding text must be at the beginning of a line by itself. Don’t forget it, for until it is typed, no other ed commands will be recognized — everything you type will be treated as text to be added.
At this point you can do various editing operations on the text you typed in, such as correcting spelling mistakes, rearranging paragraphs and the like. Finally, you must write the information you have typed into a file with the editor command w:
w
ed will respond with the number of characters it wrote into the file junk.
Until the w command, nothing is stored permanently, so if you hang up and go home the information is lost.** But after w the information is there permanently; you can re-access it any time by typing
ed junk
Type a q command to quit the editor. (If you try to quit without writing, ed will print a ? to remind you. A second q gets you out regardless.)
Now create a second file called temp in the same manner. You should now have two files, junk and temp.
What files are out there?
The ls (for ”list”) command lists the names (not contents) of any of the files that UNIX knows about. If you type
ls
the response will be
junk temp
which are indeed the two files just created. The names are sorted into alphabetical order automatically, but other variations are possible. For example, the command
ls -t
causes the files to be listed in the order in which they were last changed, most recent first. The -l option gives a ”long” listing:
ls -l
will produce something like
-rw-rw-rw- 1 bwk 41 Jul 22 2:56 junk
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-rw-rw-rw- 1 bwk 78 Jul 22 2:57 temp
The date and time are of the last change to the file. The 41 and 78 are the number of characters (which should agree with the numbers you got from ed). bwk is the owner of the file, that is, the person who created it. The -rw-rw-rw- tells who has permission to read and write the file, in this case everyone.
Options can be combined: ls -lt gives the same thing as ls -l, but sorted into time order. You can also name the files you’re interested in, and ls will list the information about them only. More details can be found in ls(1).
The use of optional arguments that begin with a minus sign, like -t and -lt, is a common convention for UNIX programs. In general, if a program accepts such optional arguments, they precede any filename arguments. It is also vital that you separate the various arguments with spaces: ls-l is not the same as ls -l.
Printing Files
Now that you’ve got a file of text, how do you print it so people can look at it? There are a host of programs that do that, probably more than are needed.
One simple thing is to use the editor, since printing is often done just before making changes anyway. You can say
ed junk 1,$p
ed will reply with the count of the characters in junk and then print all the lines in the file. After you learn how to use the editor, you can be selective about the parts you print.
There are times when it’s not feasible to use the editor for printing. For example, there is a limit on how big a file ed can handle (several thousand lines). Secondly, it will only print one file at a time, and sometimes you want to print several, one after another. So here are a couple of alternatives.
First is cat, the simplest of all the printing programs. cat simply prints on the terminal the contents of all the files named in a list. Thus
cat junk
prints one file, and
cat junk temp
prints two. The files are simply concatenated (hence the name ”cat”) onto the terminal.
pr produces formatted printouts of files. As with cat, pr prints all the files named in a list. The difference is that it produces headings with date, time, page number and file name at the top of each page, and extra lines to skip over the fold in the paper. Thus,
pr junk temp
will print junk neatly, then skip to the top of a new page and print temp neatly.
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pr can also produce multi-column output:
pr -3 junk
prints junk in 3-column format. You can use any reasonable number in place of ”3” and pr will do its best. pr has other capabilities as well; see pr(1).
It should be noted that pr is not a formatting program in the sense of shuffling lines around and justifying margins. The true formatters are nroff and troff, which we will get to in the section on document preparation.
There are also programs that print files on a high-speed printer. Look in your manual under opr and lpr. Which to use depends on what equipment is attached to your machine.
Shuffling Files About
Now that you have some files in the file system and some experience in printing them, you can try bigger things. For example, you can move a file from one place to another (which amounts to giving it a new name), like this:
mv junk precious
This means that what used to be ”junk” is now ”precious”. If you do an ls command now, you will get
precious temp
Beware that if you move a file to another one that already exists, the already existing contents are lost forever.
If you want to make a copy of a file (that is, to have two versions of something), you can use the cp command:
cp precious temp1
makes a duplicate copy of precious in temp1.
Finally, when you get tired of creating and moving files, there is a command to remove files from the file system, called rm.
rm temp temp1
will remove both of the files named.
You will get a warning message if one of the named files wasn’t there, but otherwise rm, like most UNIX commands, does its work silently. There is no prompting or chatter, and error messages are occasionally curt. This terseness is sometimes disconcerting to newcomers, but experienced users find it desirable.
What’s in a Filename
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So far we have used filenames without ever saying what’s a legal name, so it’s time for a couple of rules. First, filenames are limited to 14 characters, which is enough to be descriptive. Second, although you can use almost any character in a filename, common sense says you should stick to ones that are visible, and that you should probably avoid characters that might be used with other meanings. We have already seen, for example, that in the ls command, ls -t means to list in time order. So if you had a file whose name was -t, you would have a tough time listing it by name. Besides the minus sign, there are other characters which have special meaning. To avoid pitfalls, you would do well to use only letters, numbers and the period until you’re familiar with the situation.
On to some more positive suggestions. Suppose you’re typing a large document like a book. Logically this divides into many small pieces, like chapters and perhaps sections. Physically it must be divided too, for ed will not handle really big files. Thus you should type the document as a number of files. You might have a separate file for each chapter, called
chap1 chap2 etc…
Or, if each chapter were broken into several files, you might have
chap1.1 chap1.2 chap1.3 … chap2.1 chap2.2 …
You can now tell at a glance where a particular file fits into the whole.
There are advantages to a systematic naming convention which are not obvious to the novice UNIX user. What if you wanted to print the whole book? You could say
pr chap1.1 chap1.2 chap1.3 ……
but you would get tired pretty fast, and would probably even make mistakes. Fortunately, there is a shortcut. You can say
pr chap*
The * means ”anything at all,” so this translates into ”print all files whose names begin with chap”, listed in alphabetical order.
This shorthand notation is not a property of the pr command, by the way. It is system-wide, a service of the program that interprets commands (the ”shell,” sh(1)). Using that fact, you can see how to list the names of the files in the book:
ls chap*
produces
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chap1.1 chap1.2 chap1.3 …
The * is not limited to the last position in a filename — it can be anywhere and can occur several times. Thus
rm *junk* *temp*
removes all files that contain junk or temp as any part of their name. As a special case, * by itself matches every filename, so
pr *
prints all your files (alphabetical order), and
rm *
removes all files. (You had better be very sure that’s what you wanted to say!)
The * is not the only pattern-matching feature available. Suppose you want to print only chapters 1 through 4 and 9. Then you can say
pr chap[12349]*
The […] means to match any of the characters inside the brackets. A range of consecutive letters or digits can be abbreviated, so you can also do this with
pr chap[1-49]*
Letters can also be used within brackets: [a-z] matches any character in the range a through z.
The ? pattern matches any single character, so
ls ?
lists all files which have single-character names, and
ls -l chap?.1
lists information about the first file of each chapter (chap1.1, chap2.1, etc.).
Of these niceties, * is certainly the most useful, and you should get used to it. The others are frills, but worth knowing.
If you should ever have to turn off the special meaning of *, ?, etc., enclose the entire argument in single quotes, as in
ls ‘?’
We’ll see some more examples of this shortly.
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What’s in a Filename, Continued
When you first made that file called junk, how did the system know that there wasn’t another junk somewhere else, especially since the person in the next office is also reading this tutorial? The answer is that generally each user has a private directory, which contains only the files that belong to him. When you log in, you are ”in” your directory. Unless you take special action, when you create a new file, it is made in the directory that you are currently in; this is most often your own directory, and thus the file is unrelated to any other file of the same name that might exist in someone else’s directory.
The set of all files is organized into a (usually big) tree, with your files located several branches into the tree. It is possible for you to ”walk” around this tree, and to find any file in the system, by starting at the root of the tree and walking along the proper set of branches. Conversely, you can start where you are and walk toward the root.
Let’s try the latter first. The basic tools is the command pwd (”print working directory”), which prints the name of the directory you are currently in.
Although the details will vary according to the system you are on, if you give the command pwd, it will print something like
/usr/yourname
This says that you are currently in the directory your-name, which is in turn in the directory /usr, which is in turn in the root directory called by convention just /. (Even if it’s not called /usr on your system, you will get something analogous. Make the corresponding changes and read on.)
If you now type
ls /usr/yourname
you should get exactly the same list of file names as you get from a plain ls: with no arguments, ls lists the contents of the current directory; given the name of a directory, it lists the contents of that directory.
Next, try
ls /usr
This should print a long series of names, among which is your own login name your-name. On many systems, usr is a directory that contains the directories of all the normal users of the system, like you.
The next step is to try
ls /
You should get a response something like this (although again the details may be different):
bin dev etc lib tmp
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usr
This is a collection of the basic directories of files that the system knows about; we are at the root of the tree.
Now try
cat /usr/yourname/junk
(if junk is still around in your directory). The name
/usr/yourname/junk
is called the pathname of the file that you normally think of as ”junk”. ”Pathname” has an obvious meaning: it represents the full name of the path you have to follow from the root through the tree of directories to get to a particular file. It is a universal rule in the UNIX system that anywhere you can use an ordinary filename, you can use a pathname.
Here is a picture which may make this clearer:
(root) / | \ / | \ / | \ bin etc usr dev tmp / | \ / | \ / | \ / | \ / | \ / | \ / | \ adam eve mary / / \ \ / \ junk junk temp
Notice that Mary’s junk is unrelated to Eve’s.
This isn’t too exciting if all the files of interest are in your own directory, but if you work with someone else or on several projects concurrently, it becomes handy indeed. For example, your friends can print your book by saying
pr /usr/yourname/chap*
Similarly, you can find out what files your neighbor has by saying
ls /usr/neighborname
or make your own copy of one of his files by
cp /usr/yourneighbor/hisfile yourfile
If your neighbor doesn’t want you poking around in his files, or vice versa, privacy can be arranged.
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Each file and directory has read-write-execute permissions for the owner, a group, and everyone else, which can be set to control access. See ls(1) and chmod(1) for details. As a matter of observed fact, most users most of the time find openness of more benefit than privacy.
As a final experiment with pathnames, try
ls /bin /usr/bin
Do some of the names look familiar? When you run a program, by typing its name after the prompt character, the system simply looks for a file of that name. It normally looks first in your directory (where it typically doesn’t find it), then in /bin and finally in /usr/bin. There is nothing magic about commands like cat or ls, except that they have been collected into a couple of places to be easy to find and administer.
What if you work regularly with someone else on common information in his directory? You could just log in as your friend each time you want to, but you can also say ”I want to work on his files instead of my own”. This is done by changing the directory that you are currently in:
cd /usr/yourfriend
(On some systems, cd is spelled chdir.) Now when you use a filename in something like cat or pr, it refers to the file in your friend’s directory. Changing directories doesn’t affect any permissions associated with a file — if you couldn’t access a file from your own directory, changing to another directory won’t alter that fact. Of course, if you forget what directory you’re in, type
pwd
to find out.
It is usually convenient to arrange your own files so that all the files related to one thing are in a directory separate from other projects. For example, when you write your book, you might want to keep all the text in a directory called book. So make one with
mkdir book
then go to it with
cd book
then start typing chapters. The book is now found in (presumably)
/usr/yourname/book
To remove the directory book, type
rm book/* rmdir book
The first command removes all files from the directory; the second removes the empty directory.
You can go up one level in the tree of files by saying
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cd ..
”..” is the name of the parent of whatever directory you are currently in. For completeness, ”.” is an alternate name for the directory you are in.
Using Files instead of the Terminal
Most of the commands we have seen so far produce output on the terminal; some, like the editor, also take their input from the terminal. It is universal in UNIX systems that the terminal can be replaced by a file for either or both of input and output. As one example,
ls
makes a list of files on your terminal. But if you say
ls >filelist
a list of your files will be placed in the file filelist (which will be created if it doesn’t already exist, or overwritten if it does). The symbol > means ”put the output on the following file, rather than on the terminal.” Nothing is produced on the terminal. As another example, you could combine several files into one by capturing the output of cat in a file:
cat f1 f2 f3 >temp
The symbol >> operates very much like > does, except that it means ”add to the end of.” That is,
cat f1 f2 f3 >>temp
means to concatenate f1, f2 and f3 to the end of whatever is already in temp, instead of overwriting the existing contents. As with >, if temp doesn’t exist, it will be created for you.
In a similar way, the symbol < means to take the input for a program from the following file, instead of from the terminal. Thus, you could make up a script of commonly used editing commands and put them into a file called script. Then you can run the script on a file by saying
ed file <script
As another example, you can use ed to prepare a letter in file let, then send it to several people with
mail adam eve mary joe <let
Pipes
One of the novel contributions of the UNIX system is the idea of a pipe. A pipe is simply a way to connect the output of one program to the input of another program, so the two run as a sequence of processes — a pipeline.
For example,
pr f g h
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will print the files f, g, and h, beginning each on a new page. Suppose you want them run together instead. You could say
cat f g h >temp pr <temp rm temp
but this is more work than necessary. Clearly what we want is to take the output of cat and connect it to the input of pr. So let us use a pipe:
cat f g h | pr
The vertical bar | means to take the output from cat, which would normally have gone to the terminal, and put it into pr to be neatly formatted.
There are many other examples of pipes. For example,
ls | pr -3
prints a list of your files in three columns. The program wc counts the number of lines, words and characters in its input, and as we saw earlier, who prints a list of currently-logged on people, one per line. Thus
who | wc
tells how many people are logged on. And of course
ls | wc
counts your files.
Any program that reads from the terminal can read from a pipe instead; any program that writes on the terminal can drive a pipe. You can have as many elements in a pipeline as you wish.
Many UNIX programs are written so that they will take their input from one or more files if file arguments are given; if no arguments are given they will read from the terminal, and thus can be used in pipelines. pr is one example:
pr -3 a b c
prints files a, b and c in order in three columns. But in
cat a b c | pr -3
pr prints the information coming down the pipeline, still in three columns.
The Shell
We have already mentioned once or twice the mysterious ”shell,” which is in fact sh(1). The shell is the program that interprets what you type as commands and arguments. It also looks after translating *, etc., into lists of filenames, and <, >, and | into changes of input and output streams.
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The shell has other capabilities too. For example, you can run two programs with one command line by separating the commands with a semicolon; the shell recognizes the semicolon and breaks the line into two commands. Thus
date; who
does both commands before returning with a prompt character.
You can also have more than one program running simultaneously if you wish. For example, if you are doing something time-consuming, like the editor script of an earlier section, and you don’t want to wait around for the results before starting something else, you can say
ed file <script &
The ampersand at the end of a command line says ”start this command running, then take further commands from the terminal immediately,” that is, don’t wait for it to complete. Thus the script will begin, but you can do something else at the same time. Of course, to keep the output from interfering with what you’re doing on the terminal, it would be better to say
ed file <script >script.out &
which saves the output lines in a file called script.out.
When you initiate a command with &, the system replies with a number called the process number, which identifies the command in case you later want to stop it. If you do, you can say
kill processnumber
If you forget the process number, the command ps will tell you about everything you have running. (If you are desperate, kill 0 will kill all your processes.) And if you’re curious about other people, ps a will tell you about all programs that are currently running.
You can say
(command1; command2; command3) &
to start three commands in the background, or you can start a background pipeline with
command1 | command2 &
Just as you can tell the editor or some similar program to take its input from a file instead of from the terminal, you can tell the shell to read a file to get commands. (Why not? The shell, after all, is just a program, albeit a clever one.) For instance, suppose you want to set tabs on your terminal, and find out the date and who’s on the system every time you log in. Then you can put the three necessary commands (tabs, date, who) into a file, let’s call it startup, and then run it with
sh startup
This says to run the shell with the file startup as input. The effect is as if you had typed the contents of startup on the terminal.
If this is to be a regular thing, you can eliminate the need to type sh: simply type, once only, the
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command
chmod +x startup
and thereafter you need only say
startup
to run the sequence of commands. The chmod(1) command marks the file executable; the shell recognizes this and runs it as a sequence of commands.
If you want startup to run automatically every time you log in, create a file in your login directory called .profile, and place in it the line startup. When the shell first gains control when you log in, it looks for the .profile file and does whatever commands it finds in it. We’ll get back to the shell in the section on programming.
III. DOCUMENT PREPARATION
UNIX systems are used extensively for document preparation. There are two major formatting programs, that is, programs that produce a text with justified right margins, automatic page numbering and titling, automatic hyphenation, and the like. nroff is designed to produce output on terminals and line-printers. troff (pronounced ”tee-roff”) instead drives a phototypesetter, which produces very high quality output on photographic paper. This paper was formatted with troff.
Formatting Packages
The basic idea of nroff and troff is that the text to be formatted contains within it ”formatting commands” that indicate in detail how the formatted text is to look. For example, there might be commands that specify how long lines are, whether to use single or double spacing, and what running titles to use on each page.
Because nroff and troff are relatively hard to learn to use effectively, several ”packages” of canned formatting requests are available to let you specify paragraphs, running titles, footnotes, multi-column output, and so on, with little effort and without having to learn nroff and troff. These packages take a modest effort to learn, but the rewards for using them are so great that it is time well spent.
In this section, we will provide a hasty look at the ”manuscript” package known as -ms. Formatting requests typically consist of a period and two upper-case letters, such as .TL, which is used to introduce a title, or .PP to begin a new paragraph.
A document is typed so it looks something like this:
.TL title of document .AU author name .SH section heading .PP
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paragraph … .PP another paragraph … .SH another section heading .PP etc.
The lines that begin with a period are the formatting requests. For example, .PP calls for starting a new paragraph. The precise meaning of .PP depends on what output device is being used (typesetter or terminal, for instance), and on what publication the document will appear in. For example, -ms normally assumes that a paragraph is preceded by a space (one line in nroff, ½ line in troff), and the first word is indented. These rules can be changed if you like, but they are changed by changing the interpretation of .PP, not by re-typing the document.
To actually produce a document in standard format using -ms, use the command
troff -ms files …
for the typesetter, and
nroff -ms files …
for a terminal. The -ms argument tells troff and nroff to use the manuscript package of formatting requests.
There are several similar packages; check with a local expert to determine which ones are in common use on your machine.
Supporting Tools
In addition to the basic formatters, there is a host of supporting programs that help with document preparation. The list in the next few paragraphs is far from complete, so browse through the manual and check with people around you for other possibilities.
eqn and neqn let you integrate mathematics into the text of a document, in an easy-to-learn language that closely resembles the way you would speak it aloud. For example, the eqn input
sum from i=0 to n x sub i ~=~ pi over 2
produces the output
The program tbl provides an analogous service for preparing tabular material; it does all the computations necessary to align complicated columns with elements of varying widths.
refer prepares bibliographic citations from a data base, in whatever style is defined by the formatting package. It looks after all the details of numbering references in sequence, filling in page and volume numbers, getting the author’s initials and the journal name right, and so on.
spell and typo detect possible spelling mistakes in a document. spell works by comparing the
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words in your document to a dictionary, printing those that are not in the dictionary. It knows enough about English spelling to detect plurals and the like, so it does a very good job. typo looks for words which are ”unusual”, and prints those. Spelling mistakes tend to be more unusual, and thus show up early when the most unusual words are printed first.
grep looks through a set of files for lines that contain a particular text pattern (rather like the editor’s context search does, but on a bunch of files). For example,
grep ‘ing$’ chap*
will find all lines that end with the letters ing in the files chap*. (It is almost always a good practice to put single quotes around the pattern you’re searching for, in case it contains characters like * or $ that have a special meaning to the shell.) grep is often useful for finding out in which of a set of files the misspelled words detected by spell are actually located.
diff prints a list of the differences between two files, so you can compare two versions of something automatically (which certainly beats proofreading by hand).
wc counts the words, lines and characters in a set of files. tr translates characters into other characters; for example it will convert upper to lower case and vice versa. This translates upper into lower:
tr A-Z a-z <input >output
sort sorts files in a variety of ways; cref makes cross-references; ptx makes a permuted index (keyword-in-context listing). sed provides many of the editing facilities of ed, but can apply them to arbitrarily long inputs. awk provides the ability to do both pattern matching and numeric computations, and to conveniently process fields within lines. These programs are for more advanced users, and they are not limited to document preparation. Put them on your list of things to learn about.
Most of these programs are either independently documented (like eqn and tbl), or are sufficiently simple that the description in the UNIX Programmer’s Manual is adequate explanation.
Hints for Preparing Documents
Most documents go through several versions (always more than you expected) before they are finally finished. Accordingly, you should do whatever possible to make the job of changing them easy.
First, when you do the purely mechanical operations of typing, type so that subsequent editing will be easy. Start each sentence on a new line. Make lines short, and break lines at natural places, such as after commas and semicolons, rather than randomly. Since most people change documents by rewriting phrases and adding, deleting and rearranging sentences, these precautions simplify any editing you have to do later.
Keep the individual files of a document down to modest size, perhaps ten to fifteen thousand characters. Larger files edit more slowly, and of course if you make a dumb mistake it’s better to have clobbered a small file than a big one. Split into files at natural boundaries in the document, for the same reasons that you start each sentence on a new line.
The second aspect of making change easy is to not commit yourself to formatting details too early.
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One of the advantages of formatting packages like -ms is that they permit you to delay decisions to the last possible moment. Indeed, until a document is printed, it is not even decided whether it will be typeset or put on a line printer.
As a rule of thumb, for all but the most trivial jobs, you should type a document in terms of a set of requests like .PP, and then define them appropriately, either by using one of the canned packages (the better way) or by defining your own nroff and troff commands. As long as you have entered the text in some systematic way, it can always be cleaned up and re-formatted by a judicious combination of editing commands and request definitions.
IV. PROGRAMMING
There will be no attempt made to teach any of the programming languages available but a few words of advice are in order. One of the reasons why the UNIX system is a productive programming environment is that there is already a rich set of tools available, and facilities like pipes, I/O redirection, and the capabilities of the shell often make it possible to do a job by pasting together programs that already exist instead of writing from scratch.
The Shell
The pipe mechanism lets you fabricate quite complicated operations out of spare parts that already exist. For example, the first draft of the spell program was (roughly)
cat … collect the files | tr … put each word on a new line | tr … delete punctuation, etc. | sort into dictionary order | uniq discard duplicates | comm print words in text but not in dictionary
More pieces have been added subsequently, but this goes a long way for such a small effort.
The editor can be made to do things that would normally require special programs on other systems. For example, to list the first and last lines of each of a set of files, such as a book, you could laboriously type
ed e chap1.1 1p $p e chap1.2 1p $p etc.
But you can do the job much more easily. One way is to type
ls chap* >temp
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to get the list of filenames into a file. Then edit this file to make the necessary series of editing commands (using the global commands of ed), and write it into script. Now the command
ed <script
will produce the same output as the laborious hand typing. Alternately (and more easily), you can use the fact that the shell will perform loops, repeating a set of commands over and over again for a set of arguments:
for i in chap* do ed $i <script done
This sets the shell variable i to each file name in turn, then does the command. You can type this command at the terminal, or put it in a file for later execution.
Programming the Shell
An option often overlooked by newcomers is that the shell is itself a programming language, with variables, control flow (if-else, while, for, case), subroutines, and interrupt handling. Since there are many building-block programs, you can sometimes avoid writing a new program merely by piecing together some of the building blocks with shell command files.
We will not go into any details here; examples and rules can be found in An Introduction to the UNIX Shell, by S. R. Bourne.
Programming in C
If you are undertaking anything substantial, C is the only reasonable choice of programming language: everything in the UNIX system is tuned to it. The system itself is written in C, as are most of the programs that run on it. It is also a easy language to use once you get started. C is introduced and fully described in The C Programming Language by B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie (Prentice-Hall, 1978). Several sections of the manual describe the system interfaces, that is, how you do I/O and similar functions. Read UNIX Programming for more complicated things.
Most input and output in C is best handled with the standard I/O library, which provides a set of I/O functions that exist in compatible form on most machines that have C compilers. In general, it’s wisest to confine the system interactions in a program to the facilities provided by this library.
C programs that don’t depend too much on special features of UNIX (such as pipes) can be moved to other computers that have C compilers. The list of such machines grows daily; in addition to the original PDP-11, it currently includes at least Honeywell 6000, IBM 370, Interdata 8/32, Data General Nova and Eclipse, HP 2100, Harris /7, VAX 11/780, SEL 86, and Zilog Z80. Calls to the standard I/O library will work on all of these machines.
There are a number of supporting programs that go with C. lint checks C programs for potential portability problems, and detects errors such as mismatched argument types and uninitialized variables.
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For larger programs (anything whose source is on more than one file) make allows you to specify the dependencies among the source files and the processing steps needed to make a new version; it then checks the times that the pieces were last changed and does the minimal amount of recompiling to create a consistent updated version.
The debugger adb is useful for digging through the dead bodies of C programs, but is rather hard to learn to use effectively. The most effective debugging tool is still careful thought, coupled with judiciously placed print statements.
The C compiler provides a limited instrumentation service, so you can find out where programs spend their time and what parts are worth optimizing. Compile the routines with the -p option; after the test run, use prof to print an execution profile. The command time will give you the gross run-time statistics of a program, but they are not super accurate or reproducible.
Other Languages
If you have to use Fortran, there are two possibilities. You might consider Ratfor, which gives you the decent control structures and free-form input that characterize C, yet lets you write code that is still portable to other environments. Bear in mind that UNIX Fortran tends to produce large and relatively slow-running programs. Furthermore, supporting software like adb, prof, etc., are all virtually useless with Fortran programs. There may also be a Fortran 77 compiler on your system. If so, this is a viable alternative to Ratfor, and has the non-trivial advantage that it is compatible with C and related programs. (The Ratfor processor and C tools can be used with Fortran 77 too.)
If your application requires you to translate a language into a set of actions or another language, you are in effect building a compiler, though probably a small one. In that case, you should be using the yacc compiler-compiler, which helps you develop a compiler quickly. The lex lexical analyzer generator does the same job for the simpler languages that can be expressed as regular expressions. It can be used by itself, or as a front end to recognize inputs for a yacc-based program. Both yacc and lex require some sophistication to use, but the initial effort of learning them can be repaid many times over in programs that are easy to change later on.
Most UNIX systems also make available other languages, such as Algol 68, APL, Basic, Lisp, Pascal, and Snobol. Whether these are useful depends largely on the local environment: if someone cares about the language and has worked on it, it may be in good shape. If not, the odds are strong that it will be more trouble than it’s worth.
V. UNIX READING LIST
General:
K. L. Thompson and D. M. Ritchie, The UNIX Programmer’s Manual, Bell Laboratories, 1978. Lists commands, system routines and interfaces, file formats, and some of the maintenance procedures. You can’t live without this, although you will probably only need to read section 1.
Documents for Use with the UNIX Time-sharing System. Volume 2 of the Programmer’s Manual. This contains more extensive descriptions of major commands, and tutorials and reference manuals. All of the papers listed below are in it, as are descriptions of most of the programs mentioned above.
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D. M. Ritchie and K. L. Thompson, ”The UNIX Time-sharing System,” CACM, July 1974. An overview of the system, for people interested in operating systems. Worth reading by anyone who programs. Contains a remarkable number of one-sentence observations on how to do things right.
The Bell System Technical Journal (BSTJ) Special Issue on UNIX, July/August, 1978, contains many papers describing recent developments, and some retrospective material.
The 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering (October, 1976) contains several papers describing the use of the Programmer’s Workbench (PWB) version of UNIX.
Document Preparation:
B. W. Kernighan, ”A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor” and ”Advanced Editing on UNIX,” Bell Laboratories, 1978. Beginners need the introduction; the advanced material will help you get the most out of the editor.
M. E. Lesk, ”Typing Documents on UNIX,” Bell Laboratories, 1978. Describes the -ms macro package, which isolates the novice from the vagaries of nroff and troff, and takes care of most formatting situations. If this specific package isn’t available on your system, something similar probably is. The most likely alternative is the PWB/UNIX macro package -mm; see your local guru if you use PWB/UNIX.
B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, ”A System for Typesetting Mathematics,” Bell Laboratories Computing Science Tech. Rep. 17.
M. E. Lesk, ”Tbl — A Program to Format Tables,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 49, 1976.
J. F. Ossanna, Jr., ”NROFF/TROFF User’s Manual,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 54, 1976. troff is the basic formatter used by -ms, eqn and tbl. The reference manual is indispensable if you are going to write or maintain these or similar programs. But start with:
B. W. Kernighan, ”A TROFF Tutorial,” Bell Laboratories, 1976. An attempt to unravel the intricacies of troff.
Programming:
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language, Prentice-Hall, 1978. Contains a tutorial introduction, complete discussions of all language features, and the reference manual.
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, ”UNIX Programming,” Bell Laboratories, 1978. Describes how to interface with the system from C programs: I/O calls, signals, processes.
S. R. Bourne, ”An Introduction to the UNIX Shell,” Bell Laboratories, 1978. An introduction and reference manual for the Version 7 shell. Mandatory reading if you intend to make effective use of the programming power of this shell.
S. C. Johnson, ”Yacc — Yet Another Compiler-Compiler,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 32, 1978.
M. E. Lesk, ”Lex — A Lexical Analyzer Generator,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 39, 1975.
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S. C. Johnson, ”Lint, a C Program Checker,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 65, 1977.
S. I. Feldman, ”MAKE — A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 57, 1977.
J. F. Maranzano and S. R. Bourne, ”A Tutorial Introduction to ADB,” Bell Laboratories CSTR 62, 1977. An introduction to a powerful but complex debugging tool.
S. I. Feldman and P. J. Weinberger, ”A Portable Fortran 77 Compiler,” Bell Laboratories, 1978. A full Fortran 77 for UNIX systems.
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SYSTEM

Jurassic Park System Startup
Version 4.3
Startup
AB (0)
Security Main Monitor Main Command Main Electrical Main
SetGrids DNL View VBB Access TNL Heating Cooling
Critical Locks TeleCom VBB Reset Revert Emgency
Controll Passthrough Telecom RSD Template Main FNCC Params
Startup
CN/D
Hydrallic Main Master main Zoolog Main
Door Fold Interface SAAG-Rnd Repair Storage
GAS/VLD Main II Common Interface Status Main
Explosion Fire Hzd Schematic Main Safety / Health
STANDARD PARAMETERS
Grid Code Grid Code
Park Grids B4-C6 Outer Grids C2-D2
Zoological Grids BB-07 Pen Grids 4-R4
Lodge Grids F4-D4 Maint Grids E5-L6
Main Grids C4-G7 Sensor Grids D5-G4
Utility Grids AH-B5 Core Grids A1-C1
Circuit Integrity Not Tested
Security Grids Remain Automatic
Jurassic Park Main Modules/
/
/SystemRoot/MainHarddrive.sys
/Call libs
Include: biostat.sys
Include: sysrom.vst
Include: net.sys
Include: pwr:mdl
/
/Initialize
SetMain [42]2002/9A(total CoreSysop [vig.7tty})
Execute commando Ctrl+s
-commando: Save executed.sys
Jurassic Park Command Level Version 4.3

White_rbt.obj
-Enter Command
Find wht_rbt.obj
-Object not fond in libraries
Find/listings:wht_rbt.obj
/
/
/
/enter new command
System
Goto security level
Fredrik
076(#52/¤)
Mr_dnasys
Security
Jurassic Park System Interface Version 4.3
System
Nedry
Goto command level
Nedry
040/#xy/67&
Mr goodbytes
Security
Keycheck off
Safety off
Sl off
Security
White_rbt.obj

-enter commando
CurV = GetHandl {ssm.dt} tempRgn {itm.dd2}
CurV = GetHandl {ssd.itl} tempRgn” {itm.dd4}
On DrawMeter(!gN) set shp_val.obj to lim (Val{d})-Xval.
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return.
If Meterhandl(vGT) ((DrawBack(tY)) return
LimitDat.4 = maxbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat5 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On White_rbt.obj call link.sst {security, perimeter} set to off.
VertRange = {maxRange+setlim} tempVgn(fdn-&bb+$404).
HorRange = {maxRange-setlim/2} tempHgn(fdn-&dd+$105).
Void DrawMeter send_screen.obj print.

Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.

-Enter Command
Access Command grid
-Enter code
Fredrik
076(#52/¤)
-Enter code 2
Mr_dna_sys
-Command Level Access
-enter command
Access grid interface
-interface granted

Startup
AB (0)
Security Main Monitor Main Command Main Electrical Main
SetGrids DNL View VBB Access TNL Heating Cooling
Critical Locks TeleCom VBB Reset Revert Emgency
Controll Passthrough Telecom RSD Template Main FNCC Params
Startup
CN/D
Hydrallic Main Master main Zoolog Main
Door Fold Interface SAAG-Rnd Repair Storage
GAS/VLD Main II Common Interface Status Main
Explosion Fire Hzd Schematic Main Safety / Health
-enter commando
Popup standard papameters
/
/
/
STANDARD PARAMETERS
Grid Code Grid Code
Park Grids B4-C6 Outer Grids C2-D2
Zoological Grids BB-07 Pen Grids 4-R4
Lodge Grids F4-D4 Maint Grids E5-L6
Main Grids C4-G7 Sensor Grids D5-G4
Utility Grids AH-B5 Core Grids A1-C1
Circuit Integrity Not Tested
Security Grids Remain Automatic
/
/
/
/
/
-enter commando
Access lodge grids
-enter grid nr: F4
-Lodge F4 open
-enter commando
/
/
/
/enter new program grid.sys
/
/
/
-enter commando
Access main program
-access denied
Access main security
-access denied
Access main program grid
-access denied
And…..
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
YOU DID NOT SAY THE MAGIC WORD
/
/

Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.

Time Event System Status [Code]
05:12: Safety 1 off operative [AV12]
05:12: Safety 2 off operative [AV12]
05:12: Safety 3 off operative [AV12]
05:12: shutdown command shutdown [-AV0]
05:13: startup command shutdown [-AV0]
05:13: safety 1 on shutdown [-AV0]
05:13: safety 2 on shutdown [-AV0]
05:13: safety 3 on shutdown [-AV0]
05:14: startup command operative aux power [AV04]
05:14: Monitor-Main operative aux power [AV05]
05:14: Security-Main operative aux power [AV06]
05:14: Command-Main operative aux power [AV08]
05:14: Laboratory-Main operative aux power [AV09]
05:14: TeleCom-VBB operative aux power [AV09]
05:14: Schematic-Main operative aux power [AV09]
05:14: View operative aux power [AV09]
05:14: Control Status Chk operative aux power [AV09]
05:14: Warning: Fence Status [NB] operative aux power [AV09]
09:11: Warning: Aux Fuel (20%) operative aux power [AVZZ]
09:33: Warning: Aux Fuel (10%) operative aux power [AVZ1]
09:53: Warning: Aux Fuel (1%) operative aux power [AVZ2]
09:53: Warning: Aux Fuel (0%) operative aux power [-AV0]
17:19: Monitor-Main operative main power [AV09]
17:20: Security-Main operative main power [AV09]
17:21: startup command operative main power [AV09]
17:21: Command-Main operative main power [AV09]
17:22: Laboratory-Main operative main power [AV09]
17:22: TeleCom-VBB operative main power [AV09]
17:23: Schematic-Main operative main power [AV09]
17:23: Fence Status operative main power [AV09]
17:23: View operative main power [AV09]

-Enter Command
Access Command grid
-Enter code
Fredrik
076(#52/¤)
-Enter code 2
Mr_dna_sys
-Command Level Access
-enter command
Access grid interface
-interface granted

Startup
AB (0)
Security Main Monitor Main Command Main Electrical Main
SetGrids DNL View VBB Access TNL Heating Cooling
Critical Locks TeleCom VBB Reset Revert Emgency
Controll Passthrough Telecom RSD Template Main FNCC Params
Startup
CN/D
Hydrallic Main Master main Zoolog Main
Door Fold Interface SAAG-Rnd Repair Storage
GAS/VLD Main II Common Interface Status Main
Explosion Fire Hzd Schematic Main Safety / Health
-enter commando
Popup standard papameters
/
/
/

STANDARD PARAMETERS
Grid Code Grid Code
Park Grids B4-C6 Outer Grids C2-D2
Zoological Grids BB-07 Pen Grids 4-R4
Lodge Grids F4-D4 Maint Grids E5-L6
Main Grids C4-G7 Sensor Grids D5-G4
Utility Grids AH-B5 Core Grids A1-C1
Circuit Integrity Not Tested
Security Grids Remain Automatic
SUBROUTINES – VIEW
VIDEO INTERFACE ENVIRONMENTAL WATCH

REMOTE CLC VIDEO – H REMOTE CLC VIDEO – P
Monitor Interval Set Hold Monitor Interval
Monitor Control Auto Main Monitor Control
Optimize Sequence Rotation AO(19) DD(33) Optimize Sequence Rotation
Specify Remote Camera Command Sequence RGB Image Parameters

Common Interface
Advide Estimte Order Revive Info Systems Connote
Find Prmtrs Search Monitor Test Delay
Goahead Repeat Report Options Track Delete
Collate Go back Trial

Jurassic Park System Startup
Version 4.3
Startup
AB (0)
Security Main Monitor Main Command Main Electrical Main
SetGrids DNL View VBB Access TNL Heating Cooling
Critical Locks TeleCom VBB Reset Revert Emgency
Controll Passthrough Telecom RSD Template Main FNCC Params

Startup
CN/D
Hydrallic Main Master main Zoolog Main
Door Fold Interface SAAG-Rnd Repair Storage
GAS/VLD Main II Common Interface Status Main
Explosion Fire Hzd Schematic Main Safety / Health
STANDARD PARAMETERS
Grid Code Grid Code
Park Grids B4-C6 Outer Grids C2-D2
Zoological Grids BB-07 Pen Grids 4-R4
Lodge Grids F4-D4 Maint Grids E5-L6
Main Grids C4-G7 Sensor Grids D5-G4
Utility Grids AH-B5 Core Grids A1-C1
Circuit Integrity Not Tested
Security Grids Remain Automatic

Djur Totalt 238
Art Förväntade Befintliga Version
Tyrannosaurus 2 2 4.1
Maiasaurus 21 21 3.3
Stegosaurus 4 4 3.9
Triceratops 8 8 3.1
Procompsognathus 49 49 3.9
Othnielia 16 16 3.1
Velociraptor 8 8 3.0
Apatosaurus 17 17 3.1
Hadrosaurus 11 11 3.1
Dilophosaurus 7 7 4.3
Pterosaurus 6 6 4.3
Hypsilophodont 33 33 2.9
Euoplocephalus 16 16 4.0
Styracosaurus 18 18 3.9
Microceratops 22 22 4.1

Summa 238 238
Djur Totalt 292
Art Förväntade Befintliga Version
Tyrannosaurus 2 2 4.1
Maiasaurus 21 22 ??
Stegosaurus 4 4 3.9
Triceratops 8 8 3.1
Procompsognathus 49 65 ??
Othnielia 16 23 ??
Velociraptor 8 37 ??
Apatosaurus 17 17 3.1
Hadrosaurus 11 11 3.1
Dilophosaurus 7 7 4.3
Pterosaurus 6 6 4.3
Hypsilophodont 33 34 ??
Euoplocephalus 16 16 4.0
Styracosaurus 18 18 3.9
Microceratops 22 22 4.1

Summa 238 292

Sök efter 300
ERROR: Sökparameter hittar inte 300 djur
Djur Totalt 292
Art Förväntade Befintliga Version
Tyrannosaurus 2 2 4.1
Maiasaurus 21 22 ??
Stegosaurus 4 4 3.9
Triceratops 8 8 3.1
Procompsognathus 49 65 ??
Othnielia 16 23 ??
Velociraptor 8 37 ??
Apatosaurus 17 17 3.1
Hadrosaurus 11 11 3.1
Dilophosaurus 7 7 4.3
Pterosaurus 6 6 4.3
Hypsilophodont 33 34 ??
Euoplocephalus 16 16 4.0
Styracosaurus 18 18 3.9
Microceratops 22 22 4.1

Summa 238 292
Djur Totalt 292
Art Förväntade Befintliga Version
Tyrannosaurus 2 1 4.1
Maiasaurus 22 20 ??
Stegosaurus 4 1 3.9
Triceratops 8 6 3.1
Procompsognathus 65 64 ??
Othnielia 23 15 ??
Velociraptor 37 27 ??
Apatosaurus 17 112 3.1
Hadrosaurus 11 5 3.1
Dilophosaurus 7 4 4.3
Pterosaurus 6 5 4.3
Hypsilophodont 34 14 ??
Euoplocephalus 16 9 4.0
Styracosaurus 18 7 3.9
Microceratops 22 13 4.1

Summa 238 203
*/Jurassic Park Main Modules/
*/
*/Call libs
Include: biostat.sys
Include: sysrom.vst
Include: net.sys
Include: pwr:mdl
*/
*/Initialize
SetMain [42]2002/gA{total CoreSysop %4 [vig. 7*tty] }
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return
Term Call 909 c.lev {void MeterVis $303} Random(3#*MaxFid)
On SetSystem(!Dn) set shp_val.obj to lim(Val{d}SumVal
If SetMeter(mH). ValidMeter(Vdd) return
On SetSystem(!Telcom) set mxcpl.obj to lim (Val{pd})NextVal
*/
*/
*/security
*/
*/enter new programming codes
*/mstr_sys.obj
object found
*/
*/search libraries
*/enter title of obj
*7
*/paus system: {22:11}
*/system paused
*/
*/
*/enter new command
*/
**/
*/enter command
*/
*/start system
*/
*/system started: 06:55
*/
*/
*/enter command
*/
*/
System
Nedry
Goto command level
Nedry
040/#xy/67&
Mr goodbytes
Security
Keycheck off
Safety off
Sl off
Security
White_rbt.obj

-enter commando
CurV = GetHandl {ssm.dt} tempRgn {itm.dd2}
CurV = GetHandl {ssd.itl} tempRgn” {itm.dd4}
On DrawMeter(!gN) set shp_val.obj to lim (Val{d})-Xval.
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return.
If Meterhandl(vGT) ((DrawBack(tY)) return
LimitDat.4 = maxbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat5 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On White_rbt.obj call link.sst {security, perimeter} set to off.
VertRange = {maxRange+setlim} tempVgn(fdn-&bb+$404).
HorRange = {maxRange-setlim/2} tempHgn(fdn-&dd+$105).
Void DrawMeter send_screen.obj print.

Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
*/Jurassic Park Main Modules/
*/
*/Call libs
Include: biostat.sys
Include: sysrom.vst
Include: net.sys
Include: pwr:mdl
*/
*/Initialize
SetMain [42]2002/gA{total CoreSysop %4 [vig. 7*tty] }
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return
Term Call 909 c.lev {void MeterVis $303} Random(3#*MaxFid)
On SetSystem(!Dn) set shp_val.obj to lim(Val{d}SumVal
If SetMeter(mH). ValidMeter(Vdd) return
On SetSystem(!Telcom) set mxcpl.obj to lim (Val{pd})NextVal
*/
*/
*/enter date
2013_11_22_19:19_26
enter command
goto command level
*/
*/
*/disable wht_rbt.obj
*/enter command code
-fredrik
security
076(#%”74)
mr_dna_system
*/
*/
-enter program:{phx_brd.obj}
*/command codes accepted
*/enter new command
*/
*/
*/unicode{enter = maxbits(%50)tempCall}
*/
*/
*/enter command
copyfiles to backupserver01
*/
*/
*/{Main System Interface}
*/
*/
System
Nedry
Goto command level
Nedry
040/#xy/67&
Mr goodbytes
Security
Keycheck off
Safety off
Sl off
Security
White_rbt.obj

-enter commando
CurV = GetHandl {ssm.dt} tempRgn {itm.dd2}
CurV = GetHandl {ssd.itl} tempRgn” {itm.dd4}
On DrawMeter(!gN) set shp_val.obj to lim (Val{d})-Xval.
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return.
If Meterhandl(vGT) ((DrawBack(tY)) return
LimitDat.4 = maxbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat5 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On White_rbt.obj call link.sst {security, perimeter} set to off.
VertRange = {maxRange+setlim} tempVgn(fdn-&bb+$404).
HorRange = {maxRange-setlim/2} tempHgn(fdn-&dd+$105).
Void DrawMeter send_screen.obj print.

Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
*/Jurassic Park Main Modules/
*/
*/Call libs
Include: biostat.sys
Include: sysrom.vst
Include: net.sys
Include: pwr:mdl
*/
*/Initialize
SetMain [42]2002/gA{total CoreSysop %4 [vig. 7*tty] }
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return
Term Call 909 c.lev {void MeterVis $303} Random(3#*MaxFid)
On SetSystem(!Dn) set shp_val.obj to lim(Val{d}SumVal
If SetMeter(mH). ValidMeter(Vdd) return
On SetSystem(!Telcom) set mxcpl.obj to lim (Val{pd})NextVal
*/
*/
*/enter date
2013_11_22_19:19_26
enter command
goto command level
*/
*/
*/disable wht_rbt.obj
*/enter command code
-fredrik
security
076(#%”74)
mr_dna_system
*/
*/
-enter program:{phx_brd.obj}
*/command codes accepted
*/enter new command
*/
*/
*/unicode{enter = maxbits(%50)tempCall}
*/
*/
*/SystemRoot\System32\library_search:phx_obj.
*/obj found
*/enter command
*/
Wireless Assistant rapporterar om inställningarna för inbyggda trådlösa enheter
i din dator, såsom 802.11
enheter för trådlöst lokalt nätverk (trådlöst LAN eller WLAN),
enheter för mobilt bredbandsnätverk (WWAN)
eller Bluetooth®-enheter. Wireless Assistant ger också
information hur du kan aktivera eller sätta på enheter som har
inaktiverats och är avstängda.

Komponent Information Delresultat Resultat
Processor AMD Turion(tm) X2 Dual-Core Mobile RM-75 5,0 5,0
Bestäms av det lägsta delresultatet

Minne (RAM) 4,00 GB 5,9
Grafik ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4650 Series 5,9
Spelgrafik 2301 MB tillgängligt grafikminne 5,6
Primär hårddisk 247GB ledigt (454GB totalt) 5,7
Windows Vista (TM) Home Premium

System
——————————————————————————–

Tillverkare Hewlett-Packard
Modell HP Pavilion dv6 Notebook PC
Total mängd systemminne 32,00 GB RAM
Systemtyp 64
-bitars operativsystem
Antal processorkärnor 32
64-bitarsstöd Ja

Lagring
——————————————————————————–

Total mängd hårddiskutrymme 100000 GB (100 TB)
Diskpartition (C:) 247 GB ledigt (500 GB totalt)
Diskpartition (D:) 200 GB ledigt (1200 GB totalt)
Medieenhet (E:) CD/DVD
Diskpartition (I:) 7589 GB ledigt (10000 GB totalt)(10 TB)
Diskpartition (G:) 20000 GB ledigt (20000 GB totalt) (20 TB)
Main Server (H:) 80000 GB ledigt (80000 GB totalt) (80 TB)
Grafik
——————————————————————————–

Typ av grafikkort ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4650 Series
Total mängd tillgängligt grafikminne 2301 MB
Dedicerat grafikminne 1024 MB + 1024 MB
Dedicerat systemminne 0 MB
Delat systemminne 1277 MB
Grafikkortets drivrutinsversion 8.572.1.0
Primär bildskärmsupplösning 1366×768
DirectX-version DirectX 10

Nätverk
——————————————————————————–

Nätverkskort Realtek RTL8168D/8111D Family PCI-E GBE NIC
Nätverkskort Atheros AR9285 802.11b/g WiFi Adapter
*/enter command
*/zero and free all of core
1507 #include ”../seg.h” 1557 */
1508 1558
1509 #define CLOCK1 0177546 1559 updlock = 0;
1510 #define CLOCK2 0172540 1560 i = *ka6 + USIZE;
1511 /* 1561 UISD->r[0] = 077406;
1512 * Icode is the octal bootstrap 1562 for(;;) {
1513 * program executed in user mode 1563 UISA->r[0] = i;
1514 * to bring up the system. 1564 if(fuibyte(0) < 0)
1515 */ 1565 break;
1516 int icode[] 1566 clearseg(i);
1517 { 1567 maxmem++;
1518 0104413, /* sys exec; init; initp */ 1568 mfree(coremap, 1, i);
1519 0000014, 1569 i++;
1520 0000010, 1570 }
1521 0000777, /* br . */ 1571 if(cputype == 70)
1522 0000014, /* initp: init; 0 */ 1572 for(i=0; i<62; i=+2) {
1523 0000000, 1573 UBMAP->r[i] = i<<12;
1524 0062457, /* init: </etc/init\0> */ 1574 UBMAP->r[i+1] = 0;
1525 0061564, 1575 }
1526 0064457, 1576 printf(”mem = %l\n”, maxmem*5/16);
1527 0064556, 1577 printf(”RESTRICTED RIGHTS\n\n”);
1528 0000164, 1578 printf(”Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to\n”);
1529 }; 1579 printf(”restrictions stated in Contract with Western\n”);
1530 /* ————————- */ 1580 printf(”Electric Company, Inc.\n”);
1531 1581
1532 /* 1582 maxmem = min(maxmem, MAXMEM);
1533 * Initialization code. 1583 mfree(swapmap, nswap, swplo);
1534 * Called from m40.s or m45.s as 1584
1535 * soon as a stack and segmentation 1585 /*
1536 * have been established. 1586 * set up system process
1537 * Functions: 1587 */
1538 * clear and free user core 1588
1539 * find which clock is configured 1589 proc[0].p_addr = *ka6;
1540 * hand craft 0th process 1590 proc[0].p_size = USIZE;
1541 * call all initialization routines 1591 proc[0].p_stat = SRUN;
1542 * fork – process 0 to schedule 1592 proc[0].p_flag =| SLOAD|SSYS;
1543 * – process 1 execute bootstrap 1593 u.u_procp = &proc[0];
1544 * 1594
1545 * panic: no clock — neither clock responds 1595 /*
1546 * loop at loc 6 in user mode — /etc/init 1596 * determine clock
1547 * cannot be executed 1597 */
1548 */ 1598
1549 1599 UISA->r[7] = ka6[1]; /* io segment */
2700 dev =| USER; 2750
2701 u.u_ar0 = &r0; 2751 case 6+USER: /* sys call */
2702 switch(dev) { 2752 u.u_error = 0;
2703 2753 ps =& ~EBIT;
2704 /* 2754 callp = &sysent[fuiword(pc-2)&077];
2705 * Trap not expected. 2755 if (callp == sysent) { /* indirect */
2706 * Usually a kernel mode bus error. 2756 a = fuiword(pc);
2707 * The numbers printed are used to 2757 pc =+ 2;
2708 * find the hardware PS/PC as follows. 2758 i = fuword(a);
2709 * (all numbers in octal 18 bits) 2759 if ((i & ~077) != SYS)
2710 * address_of_saved_ps = 2760 i = 077; /* illegal */
2711 * (ka6*0100) + aps – 0140000; 2761 callp = &sysent[i&077];
2712 * address_of_saved_pc = 2762 for(i=0; i<callp->count; i++)
2713 * address_of_saved_ps – 2; 2763 u.u_arg[i] = fuword(a =+ 2);
2714 */ 2764 } else {
2715 default: 2765 for(i=0; i<callp->count; i++) {
2716 printf(”ka6 = %o\n”, *ka6); 2766 u.u_arg[i] = fuiword(pc);
2717 printf(”aps = %o\n”, &ps); 2767 pc =+ 2;
2718 printf(”trap type %o\n”, dev); 2768 }
2719 panic(”trap”); 2769 }
2720 2770 u.u_dirp = u.u_arg[0];
2721 case 0+USER: /* bus error */ 2771 trap1(callp->call);
2722 i = SIGBUS; 2772 if(u.u_intflg)
2723 break; 2773 u.u_error = EINTR;
2724 2774 if(u.u_error < 100) {
2725 /* 2775 if(u.u_error) {
2726 * If illegal instructions are not 2776 ps =| EBIT;
2727 * being caught and the offending instruction 2777 r0 = u.u_error;
2728 * is a SETD, the trap is ignored. 2778 }
2729 * This is because C produces a SETD at 2779 goto out;
2730 * the beginning of every program which 2780 }
2731 * will trap on CPUs without 11/45 FPU. 2781 i = SIGSYS;
2732 */ 2782 break;
2733 case 1+USER: /* illegal instruction */ 2783
2734 if(fuiword(pc-2)==SETD && u.u_signal[SIGINS]==0) 2784 /*
2735 goto out; 2785 * Since the floating exception is an
2736 i = SIGINS; 2786 * imprecise trap, a user generated
2737 break; 2787 * trap may actually come from kernel
2738 2788 * mode. In this case, a signal is sent
2739 case 2+USER: /* bpt or trace */ 2789 * to the current process to be picked
2740 i = SIGTRC; 2790 * up later.
2741 break; 2791 */
2742 2792 case 8: /* floating exception */
2743 case 3+USER: /* iot */ 2793 psignal(u.u_procp, SIGFPT);
2744 i = SIGIOT; 2794 return;
2745 break; 2795
2746 2796 case 8+USER:
2747 case 5+USER: /* emt */ 2797 i = SIGFPT;
2748 i = SIGEMT; 2798 break;
2749 break; 2799
0100 /* fundamental constants: do not change */ 0150
0101 0151 /* priorities: do not alter much */
0102 0152
0103 #define USIZE 16 /* size of user block (*64) */ 0153
0104 #define NULL 0 0154 #define PSWP -100
0105 #define NODEV (-1) 0155 #define PINOD -90
0106 #define ROOTINO 1 /* i number of all roots */ 0156 #define PRIBIO -50
0107 #define DIRSIZ 14 /* max characters per directory */ 0157 #define PPIPE 1
0108 0158 #define PWAIT 40
0109 0159 #define PSLEP 90
0110 /* signals: do not change */ 0160 #define PUSER 100
0111 0161
0112 0162 /* Certain processor registers */
0113 #define NSIG 20 0163
0114 #define SIGHUP 1 /* hangup */ 0164 #define PS 0177776
0115 #define SIGINT 2 /* interrupt (rubout) */ 0165 #define KL 0177560
0116 #define SIGQIT 3 /* quit (FS) */ 0166 #define SW 0177570
0117 #define SIGINS 4 /* illegal instruction */ 0167
0118 #define SIGTRC 5 /* trace or breakpoint */ 0168 /* ————————- */
0119 #define SIGIOT 6 /* iot */ 0169
0120 #define SIGEMT 7 /* emt */ 0170 /* structures to access integers : */
0121 #define SIGFPT 8 /* floating point exception */ 0171
0122 #define SIGKIL 9 /* kill */ 0172
0123 #define SIGBUS 10 /* bus error */ 0173 /* single integer */
0124 #define SIGSEG 11 /* segmentation violation */ 0174
0125 #define SIGSYS 12 /* sys */ 0175 struct { int integ; };
0126 #define SIGPIPE 13 /* end of pipe */ 0176
0127 0177
0128 /* tunable variables */ 0178 /* in bytes */
0129 0179
0130 #define NBUF 15 /* size of buffer cache */ 0180 struct { char lobyte; char hibyte; };
0131 #define NINODE 100 /* number of in core inodes */ 0181
0132 #define NFILE 100 /* number of in core file structures */ 0182
0133 #define NMOUNT 5 /* number of mountable file systems */ 0183 /* as a sequence */
0134 #define NEXEC 3 /* number of simultaneous exec’s */ 0184
0135 #define MAXMEM (64*32) /* max core per process; 0185 struct { int r[]; };
0136 first number is kw */ 0186
0137 #define SSIZE 20 /* initial stack size (*64 bytes) */ 0187
0138 #define SINCR 20 /* increment of stack (*64 bytes) */ 0188 /* ————————- */
0139 #define NOFILE 15 /* max open files per process */ 0189
0140 #define CANBSIZ 256 /* max size of typewriter line */ 0190
0141 #define CMAPSIZ 100 /* size of core allocation area */ 0191
0142 #define SMAPSIZ 100 /* size of swap allocation area */ 0192
0143 #define NCALL 20 /* max simultaneous time callouts */ 0193
0144 #define NPROC 50 /* max number of processes */ 0194
0145 #define NTEXT 40 /* max number of pure texts */ 0195
0146 #define NCLIST 100 /* max total clist size */ 0196
0147 #define HZ 60 /* Ticks/second of the clock */ 0197
0148 0198
0149 0199
/* time of day of next sleep */21:30
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files
Login: fredrik
%
date 22:16 2013-11-24
22:57 2013-11-24
*/system end 23:03 2013-11-24
*/system start 07:42 2013-11-25
*enter [command]
*/C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\SystemRoot
*/ who
fredrik 07:42 2013-11-25
date
07:48 2013-11-25
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Images\InGen
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Images\InGen\Dator
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Images\InGen\Platser
*/
nexus% man -k dir
dir ls (1) – list contents of directories
dirname dirname (1) – strip non-directory suffix from file name
dirs bash (1) – bash built-in commands, see bash(1)
find find (1) – search for files in a directory hierarchy
ls ls (1) – list contents of directories
mkdir mkdir (1) – make directories
pwd pwd (1) – print name of current/working directory
rmdir rmdir (1) – remove empty directories
*/
pwd$ stats Execute it
The current date and time is: den 25 november 2013 08:06
The number of users on the system is: 72
Your current working directory is: C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files
*/10:01 2013-11-25
*/F:\download
dir ls (1) – list contents of directories
dirname dirname (1) – strip non-directory suffix from file name
dirs bash (1) – bash built-in commands, see bash(1)
find find (1) – search for files in a directory hierarchy
ls ls (1) – list contents of directories
mkdir mkdir (1) – make directories
pwd pwd (1) – print name of current/working directory
rmdir rmdir (1) – remove empty directories
*/

*
*
*
mkdir
mail joe
editing the programs d
write joe
write moe
this is me learning the unix system o
ok thats good news o
delete
delete
ed junk
a
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
.
w
q
*/11:20 2013-11-25
who
fredrik 11:20 2013-11-25
Norton 360 utför nu bakgrundsuppgifter
11:58 2013-11-25
*/
mkdir visitors
ed visitorlist
fredrik
john
ramon
hernandez
carlos
arnold
.

who
fredrik 07:48 2013-11-25
john 12:10 2013-11-25
ramon 12:10 2013-11-25
arnold 02:10 2013-11-25

ls
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\full_system_codes
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\workingcodes
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\system_codes
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\wht_rbt.obj
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\securit_codes
C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files\subroutines
1 ”SIGHUP”, /* hangup */
2 ”SIGINT”, /* interrupt */
3 ”SIGQUIT”, /* quit */
4 ”SIGILL”, /* illegal instruction (not reset when caught) */
5 ”SIGTRAP”, /* trace trap (not reset when caught) */
6 ”SIGIOT/SIGABRT”, /* IOT instruction */
7 ”SIGEMT”, /* EMT instruction */
8 ”SIGFPE”, /* floating point exception */
9 ”SIGKILL”, /* kill (cannot be caught or ignored) */
Chapter 5: C shell 49
10 ”SIGBUS”, /* bus error */
11 ”SIGSEGV”, /* segmentation violation */
12 ”SIGSYS”, /* bad argument to system call */
13 ”SIGPIPE”, /* write on a pipe with no one to read it */
14 ”SIGALRM”, /* alarm clock */
15 ”SIGTERM”, /* software termination signal from kill */
16 ”SIGURG”, /* urgent condition on IO channel */
17 ”SIGSTOP”, /* sendable stop signal not from tty */
18 ”SIGTSTP”, /* stop signal from tty */
19 ”SIGCONT”, /* continue a stopped process */
20 ”SIGCHLD/SIGCLD”, /* to parent on child stop or exit */
21 ”SIGTTIN”, /* to readers pgrp upon background tty read */
22 ”SIGTTOU”, /* like TTIN for output if (tp->t_local&LTOSTOP) */
23 ”SIGIO/SIGPOLL”, /* input/output possible signal */
24 ”SIGXCPU”, /* exceeded CPU time limit */
25 ”SIGXFSZ”, /* exceeded file size limit */
26 ”SIGVTALRM”, /* virtual time alarm */
27 ”SIGPROF”, /* profiling time alarm */
28 ”SIGWINCH”, /* window changed */
29 ”SIGLOST”, /* resource lost (eg, record-lock lost) */
30 ”SIGUSR1”, /* user defined signal 1 */
31 ”SIGUSR2”
12:25 2013-11-25
date
14:07 2013-11-25
date
15:29 2013-11-25
date
16:34 2013-11-25
date
17:12 2013-11-25
info_security_animal
Elsystemet
“När man bootat om måste alla systemmoduler kopplas in manuellt.
Det är inte meningen att systemet nånsin ska stängas av, så om man gör det utgår man från att det är fel någonstans.
Den vill att man startar allt manuellt för annars, om det vore kortslutning någonstans, skulle systemet starta om och
få kortslutning, starta om och få kortslutning i all evighet.”

Spårningssystemet

Alla djur spåras via datorn och visas upp på en vertikal plexiskärm i kontrollrummet. Man kan följa alla djurens rörelser flera dygn bakåt.
Sensorerna är precisa på 1.5 meter och uppdateras var 30e sekund.
“det finns sensorer i hela parken. De flesta går det ledningar till, resten avläses via radio.
Med rörelsesensorerna får man för det mesta inte veta
vilken art det rör sej om, men vi får gestaltidentifiering direkt från videon. En gång var 15e
minut ställer datorn upp djuren i kategorier.
Den är inte baserad på spårningsdata, utan är en ny översikt. Tanken är att datorn inte ska kunna
begå några misstag då den behandlar informationen
på 2 olika sätt. Om det saknades något djur skulle datorn varna inom 5 minuter.Sensorerna täcker 92 % av
landytan. Det finns bara några få platser där
dom inte fungerar t.ex. vid floden där vattnets rörelser förvirrar sensorerna. Om datorn följer ett djur och
det försvinner i ett obevakat område kommer
datorn ihåg det och väntar till djuret kommer tillbaka. Gör det inte det så varnar datorn.”
*/enter command
*/
date
19:18 2013-11-25
who
fredrik
who date
fredrik 19:18 2013-11-25
date
19:51 2013-11-25
ser på simpsons 20:43 2013-11-25

20:59 2013-11-25
2 1/2 men på sexan
date
dax%
dax% passwd
Change your password on host alpha
You cannot change it here
dax% rlogin alpha
password: ******
alpha% passwd
Changing password for fredrik
Enter login password: ********
Enter new password: ********
Reenter new passwd: ********
*/
system end 23:10 2013-11-25
login
‘fredrik
******
system start 06:34 2013-11-26
*/ enter command
07:57 2013-11-26 mikrovågsugnen
08:01 2013-11-26 äta frukost
08:17 2013-11-26 duscha
08:26 2013-11-26 skriva mer programmering
*/C:\Users\Public\Jurassic Park System Interface\Files
copy files to C:\Users\Fredrik\Documents\System Interface\Jurassic Park System Interface\SystemRoot
*/
08:30 2013-11-26 duscha
göra användarkonton sen
08:31 2013-11-26
who
fredrik 08:38 2013-11-26
—————————-
username: fredrik
rank: admin
password: ********
retype password: ********
password accepted
—————————-
*/C:\
C:\Windows\ModemLogs
ModemLogs
*/enter command
hostname
aplhaserver01
date
08:44 2013-11-26
who
fredrik
*/enter command
08:58 2013-11-26
playing Year 2 of grim fandango
*/
11:35 2013-11-26 Jurassic park The game
*/
Problemslista
Utfodringsprogrammet nollställer sej var 12e timme – ska nollställas var 24e timme
Utfodringsprogrammet registreras inte på söndagar
Säkerhetssystemet slås ut så fort huvudströmmen bryts
Säkerhetssystemet fungerar inte på reservström – enbart på huvudström
Fysiska skyddsprogrammet som ska dämpa ljuset efter kl 22.00 fungerar bara varannan dag
Den automatiska avföringsanalysen registrerar utan undantag att alla arter har parasiten Phagostomum venulosum
Utfodringsprogrammet lägger automatiskt medicin i fodret
Om djurskötarna tar bort medicinen går ett larm som inte kan stängas av
Turistbilarna använder lycktorn, dom ska inte vara aktiverade
Kontakt med lycktornas funktion under rundturen fungerar inte
Turistbilarnas låsfunktion fungerar inte. Låset på dörrarna kan öppnas under färden. Dom ska bara kunna öppnas vid rastplatserna.
Lobbyns högtalarsystem kan få in nödkanalernas sändningar om programmet avslutas manuellt
CD-ROM systemet i baksätet på bil EXP13 fungerar inte vid triceratops sensorerna
Ljussystemet i rundturen i besökarcentret kan inte slås på om filmen stängs av manuellt
#!/local/bin/perl
####################################################################
#
# Guest book
#
####################################################################
$guestbook_page = ”/iu/nexus/ud/mark/www/tmp/cfguest.html”;
$tmp_page = ”/iu/nexus/ud/mark/www/tmp/guests.tmp”;
$remote_host = $ENV{”REMOTE_HOST”};
print ”Content-type: text/html\n\n”;
print ”<br><hr><br>\n”;
print ”Thank you for submitting your comment!<br><br>\n”;
print ”best wishes,<br><br>”;
print ”-Mark<br><br><br>”;
print ”Return to <a href=http://www.iu.hioslo.no/~mark/menu.html>menu</a>\n”;
$input = <STDIN>;
$input =~ s/%..//g;
$input =~ s/\+/ /g;
@array = split(‘&’,$input);
($skip,$name) = split(”var1=”,$array[0]);
($skip,$message) = split(”var2=”,$array[1]);
if (! open (PAGE, $guestbook_page))
{
print ”Content-type: text/html\n\n”;
print ”couldn’t open guestbook page file!”;
}
if (! open (TMP, ”+>$tmp_page”))
{
print ”Content-type: text/html\n\n”;
print ”couldn’t open temporary output file!”;
}
while ($line = <PAGE>)
{
110 The unix programming environment
if ($line =~ /<h3>Number of entries: (..)/)
{
$entry_no = $1;
$entry_no++;
$line = ”<h3>Number of entries: $entry_no </h3>\n”;
}
if ($line =~ /<!– LAST ENTRY –>/)
{
$date = `date +”%A, %b %d %Y”`;
print TMP ”<b>Entry $date from host: $remote_host</b>\n<p>\n”;
print TMP ”From: $name\n<p>\n”;
print TMP $message;
print TMP ”\n<hr>\n”;
}
print TMP ”$line”;
}
close PAGE;
close TMP;
if (! rename ($tmp_page, $guestbook_page))
{
print ”Oops! Rename operation failed!\n”;
}
chmod (0600, $guestbook_page);
dir ls (1) – list contents of directories
dirname dirname (1) – strip non-directory suffix from file name
dirs bash (1) – bash built-in commands, see bash(1)
find find (1) – search for files in a directory hierarchy
ls ls (1) – list contents of directories
mkdir mkdir (1) – make directories
pwd pwd (1) – print name of current/working directory
rmdir rmdir (1) – remove empty directories
4.1 Protection bits
The following output is from the command ls -lag executed on a SunOS type machine.
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root wheel 7 Jun 1 1993 bin -> usr/bin
-r–r–r– 1 root bin 103512 Jun 1 1993 boot
drwxr-sr-x 2 bin staff 11264 May 11 17:00 dev
drwxr-sr-x 10 bin staff 2560 Jul 8 02:06 etc
drwxr-sr-x 8 root wheel 512 Jun 1 1993 export
drwx—— 2 root daemon 512 Sep 26 1993 home
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 249079 Jun 1 1993 kadb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root wheel 7 Jun 1 1993 lib -> usr/lib
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 8192 Jun 1 1993 lost+found
drwxr-sr-x 2 bin staff 512 Jul 23 1992 mnt
dr-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 512 May 11 17:00 net
drwxr-sr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jun 1 1993 pcfs
drwxr-sr-x 2 bin staff 512 Jun 1 1993 sbin
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root wheel 13 Jun 1 1993 sys->kvm/sys
drwxrwxrwx 6 root wheel 732 Jul 8 19:23 tmp
drwxr-xr-x 27 root wheel 1024 Jun 14 1993 usr
drwxr-sr-x 10 bin staff 512 Jul 23 1992 var
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root daemon 2182656 Jun 4 1993 vmunix
1 ”SIGHUP”, /* hangup */
2 ”SIGINT”, /* interrupt */
3 ”SIGQUIT”, /* quit */
4 ”SIGILL”, /* illegal instruction (not reset when caught) */
5 ”SIGTRAP”, /* trace trap (not reset when caught) */
6 ”SIGIOT/SIGABRT”, /* IOT instruction */
7 ”SIGEMT”, /* EMT instruction */
8 ”SIGFPE”, /* floating point exception */
9 ”SIGKILL”, /* kill (cannot be caught or ignored) */
10 ”SIGBUS”, /* bus error */
11 ”SIGSEGV”, /* segmentation violation */
12 ”SIGSYS”, /* bad argument to system call */
13 ”SIGPIPE”, /* write on a pipe with no one to read it */
14 ”SIGALRM”, /* alarm clock */
15 ”SIGTERM”, /* software termination signal from kill */
16 ”SIGURG”, /* urgent condition on IO channel */
17 ”SIGSTOP”, /* sendable stop signal not from tty */
18 ”SIGTSTP”, /* stop signal from tty */
19 ”SIGCONT”, /* continue a stopped process */
20 ”SIGCHLD/SIGCLD”, /* to parent on child stop or exit */
21 ”SIGTTIN”, /* to readers pgrp upon background tty read */
22 ”SIGTTOU”, /* like TTIN for output if (tp->t_local&LTOSTOP) */
23 ”SIGIO/SIGPOLL”, /* input/output possible signal */
24 ”SIGXCPU”, /* exceeded CPU time limit */
25 ”SIGXFSZ”, /* exceeded file size limit */
26 ”SIGVTALRM”, /* virtual time alarm */
27 ”SIGPROF”, /* profiling time alarm */
28 ”SIGWINCH”, /* window changed */
29 ”SIGLOST”, /* resource lost (eg, record-lock lost) */
30 ”SIGUSR1”, /* user defined signal 1 */
31 ”SIGUSR2”
@ var = 45 # Assign a numerical value to var
echo $var # Print the value
@ var = $var + 34 # Add 34 to var
@ var += 34 # Add 34 to var
@ var -= 1 # subtract 1 from var
@ var *= 5 # Multiply var by 5
@ var /= 3 # Divide var by 3 (integer division)
@ var %= 3 # Remainder after dividing var by 3
@ var++ # Increment var by 1
@ var– # Decrement var by 1
@ array[1] = 5 # Numerical array
@ logic = ( $x > 6 && $x < 10) # AND
@ logic = ( $x > 6 || $x < 10) # OR
@ false = ! $var # Logical NOT
@ bits = ( $x | $y ) # Bitwise OR
@ bits = ( $x ^ $y ) # Bitwise XOR
@ bits = ( $x & $y ) # Bitwise AND
@ shifted = ( $var >> 2 ) # Bitwise shift right
#!/local/bin/perl
*/
*/
*/ enter command code
[5763]
code accepted
08:53 2013-11-26

enter new command
create new directory
Sökningsstatistik:
Söktid: 3665 sekunder
Sökningsalternativ:
Sökningsmål: C:\, D:\, F:\, I:\
Antal gånger:
Totalt antal sökta: 342 820
– Filer och kataloger: 333 688
– Registerposter: 472
– Processer och startobjekt: 7 989
– Nätverks- och webbläsarobjekt: 660
– Övriga: 5
– Pålitliga filer: 3 478
– Filer som hoppats över: 259 426

Totalt antal upptäckta säkerhetsrisker: 0
Totalt antal lösta: 0
Totalt antal som behöver åtgärdas: 0

lösta hot:
Inga risker har åtgärdats

olösta hot:
19:20 2013-11-29 family guy
20:18 2013-11-29 stänger av
17:33 2013-11-30 ser på narnia 2
08:32 2013-12-01 systemstart
08:50 2013-12-01 julkalendern barnen hedenhös uppfinner julen

08:09 2013-12-02 systemstart
kan också kolla genom norton 360 för att se exakta tider

08:20 2013-12-02 söker igeom PROGRAM
*/
*/
*/väntar på dataöverföring från Isla Nublar
*/enter command
creatde directory for data transfer
name [data08:21 2013-12-02]
*/
14:29 2013-12-02
15:02 2013-12-02
08:09 2013-12-03 system start
har bytt tema till Windows klassisk – 1990 tema
12:16 2013-12-03
har skrivit in mer personal på isla nublar och om kamerorna

I:\Dokument\Video\Film\Komedi\Sällskapsresan.1-5.DVDRip.XviD-KG
I:\Dokument\Video
I:\Dokument\Video\Film
I:\Dokument\Video\Film\Äventyr
I:\Dokument\Video\Film\Äventyr\Jurassic Park\Jurassic.Park.1993.CD1.DVDRip.XviD.SWESUB-KickFoot
I:\Dokument\Video\Film\Äventyr\Jurassic Park\Jurassic.Park.1993.CD2.DVDRip.XviD.SWESUB-KickFoot

*/enter new command
create a 500 GB drive memory bank system
calculate time to completion
32 H
48 Min
09:48 2013-12-08 system start
Memory free
C:\drive: 300 GB
H:\drive: 500 GB
*/enter command
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
*/Jurassic Park Main Modules/
*/
*/Call libs
Include: biostat.sys
Include: sysrom.vst
Include: net.sys
Include: pwr:mdl
*/
*/Initialize
SetMain [42]2002/gA{total CoreSysop %4 [vig. 7*tty] }
If ValidMeter(mH) (**mH).MeterVis return
Term Call 909 c.lev {void MeterVis $303} Random(3#*MaxFid)
On SetSystem(!Dn) set shp_val.obj to lim(Val{d}SumVal
If SetMeter(mH). ValidMeter(Vdd) return
On SetSystem(!Telcom) set mxcpl.obj to lim (Val{pd})NextVal
wht_rbt.obj

13:28 2013-12-13
15:56 2013-12-13
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.itl} tempCall {itm.temp}
If Link(Vg1,Vg2) set Lim(Vg1,Vg2) return
If Link(Vg2,Vg1) set Lim(Vg2,Vg1) return
On wht_rbt.obj link set security (Vg1),perimeter (Vg2)
14:25 2013-12-14
17:43 2013-12-14
09:55 2013-12-15
13:53 2013-12-15
17:07 2013-12-15
23:27 2013-12-15
08:44 2013-12-16
SetMain[security] On SetSystem = setzero{dat.dt}
LimitDat.5 = matbits (%55) to {limit .05} set on.
On SetSystem(!Dn) set shp_val.obj to lim(Val{d}SumVal
If SetMeter(mH). ValidMeter(Vdd) return
On SetSystem(!Telcom) set mxcpl.obj to lim (Val{pd})NextVal
wht_rbt.obj
08:48 2013-12-16 entering new codes
08:48 2013-12-16
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
LimitDat.1 = matbits (%22) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.2 = setzero, setfive, = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
On fini.obj call link.sst {security,perimeter} set to on
On fini.obj set link.sst {security,perimeter} restore
On fini.obj delete line rf wht_rbt.obj, fini.obj
Vg1 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
Vg2 = GetHandl {dat.dt} tempCAll {itm.temp}
LimitDat.4 = matbits (%33) to {limit .04} set on.
LimitDat.5 = setzero, setfive, 0 = {limit .2-var(szh)}.
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JURASSIC PARK INCIDENT

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Isla Nublar Incident (1993)

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Isla Nublar Incident (1993)
JP-WhenDinosaursRuled
Appearances Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
All Jurassic Park video games based on the film
Jurassic Park: The Game
The Lost World (mentioned)
The Lost World: Jurassic Park(mentioned)
Jurassic World (mentioned)
Date June 11th-13th, 1993
Location Jurassic Park, Isla Nublar
People involved See below
Dinosaurs involved See below
Casualties Donald Gennaro, Dennis Nedry, John Arnold, Robert Muldoon, Laura Sorkin, David Banks, Billy Yoder, Oscar Morales, Linares, Garza,Vargas, Daniel Cafaro, Miles Chadwick, 1 Gallimimus, 1Hadrosaurus, 1 Apatosaurus, whole herd ofParasaurolophuses
Preceded by Construction of Jurassic Park
Followed by Isla Sorna Incident (1997)
”But, John. If the Pirates of the Caribbean breaks down, the pirates don’t eat the tourists.”
Ian Malcolm(src)

The 1993 Isla Nublar Incident is one of the biggest catastrophes in the Jurassic Park series, as well as the most famous, and takes place during the first film. The incident was the beginning of the end for John Hammond‘s genetics company of InGen, as the loss of the resort facilities caused Hammond to not only re-examine himself as a capitalist, but the monetary loss caused the company to be on the verge of Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Contents

[show]

Incident Edit

June 11Edit

Hammond and the attorney who represented InGen’s investors,Donald Gennaro, were tasked by the benefactors of InGen to assemble a professional team of scientists to tour and investigate the safety of Jurassic Park, the venture located on Isla Nublar. The team was created due to safety concerns after an incident on the island that resulted in the death of one employee by a Velociraptorwhile introducing the animal to a holding pen. Gennaro recruited renowned mathematician and Chaotician, Dr. Ian Malcolm, while Hammond brought Dr. Alan Grant and Dr. Ellie Sattler, paleontologist and paleobotanist respectively, to Isla Nublar. Meanwhile, InGen employee and veterinarian, Dr. Gerry Harding, brought his youngest daughter, Jessica, to the island in order to spend time with her and allow her to view the dinosaurs of the park. After gazing at a group of Triceratops grazing in a paddock, Gerry told Jess to get ready to leave the Park.

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Dr. Grant and Dr. Sattler with a Brachiosaurus.

Later on, the tour group of scientists arrived and caught their first glimpse of dinosaurs when gazing upon the Brachiosaurus andParasaurolophus in an open field on the way to the Visitor Center, the headquarters and tourist hub of Jurassic Park. After arriving at the Visitor’s Center, the group quickly toured the facilities in the form of a short animated feature narrated by a cartoonized DNA strand named “Mr. DNA“. The animated feature then turned into an automated ride that allowed the visitors to view a selected progression of Jurassic Park’s cloning process. After the automated tour, the group interacted with a baby Velociraptor and detoured to the holding pen of the adult Velociraptors, witnessing a feeding frenzy by the animals. They returned to eat and then head out into the Park, accompanied by Hammond’s surprise guests, his grandchildren Tim and Lex Murphy.

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The group headed out into the Park proper via a guided vehicular tour which was supervised by Hammond, Park Warden Robert Muldoon, Chief EngineerRay Arnold and Computer Programmer Dennis Nedry. The first two stops on the tour, the Dilophosaurus paddock and Tyrannosaur paddock, were fruitless with regard to seeing those respective animals. The third animal on the tour, the Triceratops, was also missing in action until Dr. Grant spotted an InGen jeep in the paddock. He proceeded to lead the rest of the group through its paddock to the location of the jeep and encountered a sick Triceratops being examined by veterinarian Dr. Gerry Harding. Dr. Sattler, in conjunction with Dr. Harding, finished the examination of the Triceratops and began investigating the surroundings for causes for the animal’s sickness. Dr. Sattler discovered a poisonous plant, colloquially named “West Indian Lilac”. The group decided to return to the tour vehicles once it became apparent that inclement weather was approaching the island. All but Dr. Sattler and Dr. Harding left the Triceratops paddock. The vehicles circled around and were re-oriented on the main tour track to return to the Visitor’s Center prematurely.Meanwhile, Dennis Nedry alerted his colleagues in the control room that he was taking a break. He snuck into the embryo chamber and stole a vial of each dinosaur specimen that InGen cloned on the island while his debugging program shut off security systems, effectively allowing anyone or anything to roam the Visitor’s Center and Park freely. Meanwhile, Nima Cruz and Miles Chadwick, the people to whom Nedry was to deliver the embryos, awaited his arrival at the East Docking Bay, where the cargo ship was docked.

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Due to Nedry’s programming, the tour vehicles carrying the tour group, shut down in front of the T. rex paddock. At the same time, the electrified fencing to the paddock also shut down. At this point, the Tyrannosaurus revealed herself to the visitors by eating a goat left by the fence as bait. Gennaro, in a fit of panic, left his tour car and ran to the nearby restroom hut for refuge. By that point, the Tyrannosaurus rex moved to the disabled fencing and ripped the fencing apart; she proceeded to step through her mangled handiwork and roar. After a minute or two of exploring and investigating the Explorers, her attention was aroused by the light that was emitted from a flashlight Lex had activated in the front Explorer. Unaware that the source of the light was inside the car, she walked right up the front door and peered out into the jungle in front of the SUV. It was not until Tim slammed the open door next to her that she had discovered the source of the light. Now confident that the light was coming from inside the Explorer and that there were interesting objects inside, she set to attacking the mysterious vehicle in front of her, searching for a way to get at Lex and Tim. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Grant and Dr. Malcolm, the T. rex was briefly distracted. The Tyrannosaurus followed a fleeing Dr. Malcolm toward the restroom hut, where it injured him by flinging him into the building and exposed a cowering Gennaro. The Tyrannosaurus ripped apart Gennaro while Dr. Grant rescued the kids inside the car. Before long, however, the T. rex returned and pushed the vehicle over the cliff while Tim was still inside.

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Meanwhile, the two BioSyn agents phoned Dodgson about the situation regarding the tardiness of Nedry. Miles and Nima resolved to search for Nedry to ensure the retrieval of the embryos. Nima and Miles slipped passed the docking checkpoint just outside of the cargo ship and headed toward the interior of the island. The pair ran into the disengaged perimeter fence. After bypassing the fence, they headed deeper into the Park. After entering the Park and passing through several disabled gates, Nedry found himself lost while searching for the east dock and his cohorts Nima and Miles. In a moment of distraction and lament, Nedry crashed through a fence and over a fallen tree. The back wheels of his Jeep were suspended in the air due to the chassis being caught on the log, and so was unable to use them to dislodge the vehicle from the tree. Nedry took the winch on the front grill and wrapped the cable around a tree, losing his glasses in the progress. On his way back to activate the winch, he ran into a juvenile Dilophosaurus. Startled at first, Nedry relaxed when he caught the full-size of the creature. Nedry, half-concerned with the creature’s well-being and half-irritated by her following him, tried to get the creature to flee. Nedry soon gave up and attempted to traverse the small hill, back to the Jeep. He paused halfway up the hill and turned to face the Dilophosaurus that had not given up stalking him. The young theropod unfurled her rattling frill and spit sticky venom onto Nedry’s shirt. Dennis fearfully scurried up the rest of the hill and got to the Jeep door; he turned back to the location of the Dilophosaurus and was subsequently blinded by a gob of venom from the dinosaur. Nedry slammed into the frame of the vehicle, fell down, and lost the Barbasol can that he used to the store the embryos. Unaware of his misfortune, he cleaned his eyes, got up and sat in the now closed off vehicle. The Dilophosaurus signaled its presence by rattling her frill and proceeded to attack Nedry, killing him.Back at the Tyrannosaurus paddock, Dr. Grant consoled a frightened Lex and then set out to retrieve Tim from the Explorer wedged into a large tree. Dr. Grant climbed up to the vehicle and saw a very scared Tim. Dr. Grant coaxed the boy from his perch inside the vehicle and helped him start to climb down. Hearing the creaking and seeing the instability of the Explorer in its perch, Dr. Grant pleaded to Tim to quicken his pace in order to not be struck and killed by the falling SUV. Dr. Grant and Tim tumbled down the tree at breakneck pace, the vehicle hot on their heels. They made it to the ground just as the destroyed vehicle hit the bottom of the tree. It toppled over them, although they survived due to the hole in the roof where a plexiglass bubble once resided.

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As Lex, Tim, and Dr. Grant began their trek back to the Visitor Center, Muldoon and Dr. Sattler arrived at the Tyrannosaurus Paddock to retrieve those who had been stranded there only to find the Tyrannosaurus mess. Acting quickly, the two began searching for the group and calling out their names. At the site of the collapsed restroom hut, Muldoon and Dr. Sattler found the remains of Genarro and recovered Dr. Malcolm who was injured, but alive due to his quick thinking to reduce blood loss by using his belt as a tourniquet. After loading Dr. Malcolm into their Jeep, the two took one last sweep of the area, Dr. Sattler spotted the ruined hulk of the second tour car the Tyrannosaurus had pushed over the cliff adjacent to her Paddock. Although Muldoon and Dr. Sattler did not find Tim, Lex, or Dr. Grant, they did find their shoe prints in the mud, which told they were alive. When the two returned to the guest jeep, the Tyrannosaurus crashed through a line of trees and began chasing the three along a service road. After a very close chase, the Tyrannosaurus was unable to pin down her prey and so gave up her pursuit.

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Meanwhile, Nima and Miles stumbled upon Nedry’s location to find that Nedry was eaten by a Dilophosaurus. After searching the area for a little while, Nima and Miles came across the Barbasol can that Nedry used to smuggle the embryos off of Isla Nublar. They were then attacked by a group ofDilophosaurus. In the struggle, Miles was killed and Nima barely escaped. As Nima fled, she was chased through the jungle by a mysterious set of glowing eyes and was eventually bitten by one of the creatures. Eventually, she fell down a cliff onto a service road where she was almost struck by Dr. Gerry Harding’s jeep en route to the boat. Suffering from the toxic venom from the bite of the mysterious animals, Dr. Harding attempted to treat Nima’s wound while Jess drove back to the Visitor’s Center for medical attention. Along the way, they come across an infant Triceratops that was out of its paddock. The trio managed to get the dinosaur back into its enclosure, but the alpha female appeared and attacked, which also attracted the Tyrannosaurus. The group barely managed to escape, hiding in a maintenance shed as the dinosaurs fought, and decided to spend the night inside.Meanwhile, Lex, Tim, and Dr. Grant could hear the commotion the Tyrannosaurus was making during her chase and so climbed a nearby tree, fearing the T. rex may be close by. Nestled safely in the canopy, the trio watched a herd of Brachiosaurus grazing before they drifted off to sleep. By this time, Muldoon and Dr. Sattler had returned to the Visitor Center with Dr. Malcolm, who was given a place to rest and an injection of morphine to dull the pain. Dr. Sattler then confronted Hammond and explained to him what their priorities should be and that the Park wouldn’t succeed, which Hammond solemnly accepted.

June 12Edit

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The next morning, the trio awoke to find that a Brachiosaurus had chosen their tree for her morning meal. Lex, who was initially frightened by the animal quickly warmed up to the gentle herbivore and even petted the sauropod while Dr. Grant fed it. However, the touching moment was cut short as theBrachiosaurus let out a sneeze, covering Lex in its mucus, much to Lex’s disgust and Tim’s amusement. As their trek to the Visitor’s Center continued through the Velociraptor Paddock, Dr. Grant stopped the group for a moment when he discovered a Velociraptor nest nestled between the roots of a tree. There, he took a moment to explain to the two children that the dinosaurs were breeding.As Grant’s, Tim’s, and Lex’s trek continued, they found themselves in the Gallimimus Paddock, and witnessed the Tyrannosaurus hunting the herd of Gallimimus. After watching in amazement for a while from behind a fallen log, Lex begged Dr. Grant for them to go, to which Dr. Grant obliged. However, Tim continued to stare in fascination and so had to be forcibly taken away by Dr. Grant.

Unfortunately, even though working through the night, Mr. Arnold was unable to find and remove the White Rabbit Object command that Nedry used to disable the Park systems. In an attempt to remove the bug in its entirety, Hammond had Arnold shut down the entire Jurassic Park system, and Hammond calling for them all to take shelter in the Emergency Bunker while Ray Arnold went to the Maintenance Shed to restore the power to the Park.

After Ray Arnold did not return from the Maintenance Shed, Dr. Ellie Sattler accompanied by Robert Muldoon, decided to go to the shed themselves. On their way, the duo discovered that the Raptors used the shut down to break out of the Raptor pen and roam freely. Knowing the Raptors’ danger, Muldoon had Dr. Sattler make a break for the Maintenance Shed as he attempted to take down the Raptors. Spotting one Raptor in the distance, Muldoon closed in on her and quietly readied his gun. However, as he took aim, a second Raptorambushed Muldoon and attacked the seasoned hunter just after the man uttered his famous last words: “clever girl”. As Muldoon was mauled, the Raptor being aimed for watched from a distance as a small boa constrictor slithered along the branch in front of her.

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Finally arriving at the perimeter fence, the trio climbed over only for Tim to be electrocuted when Dr. Sattler had restored the power. Performing CPR, Dr. Grant was able to resuscitate Tim and carried him to the Visitor’s Center from there.

Dr. Ellie Sattler had entered the Maintenance Shed and restored power to the Park, only to be ambushed by the third Raptor of the trio. Scrambling back in fright, Sattler bumped into a machine, which caused Ray Arnold’s chewed off arm to fall on her. Discovering that the Raptor must have killed and partially consumed Arnold, Dr. Sattler was once again ambushed by the Raptor as Dr. Sattler made her escape from the building in a frenzied panic. Running towards the Emergency Bunker, Dr. Sattler encountered Dr. Grant who had just came from dropping the children off at the Visitor’s Center. During this time, Dr. Laura Sorkin, a Park scientist who became trapped in a field research lab due to the storm destroying the access road, saw Dr. Harding, Jess and Nima on a security feed, and sent one of the automated tour vehicles to their location to pick them up.

As Grant, Sattler, Malcolm, and Hammond regrouped back in the Emergency Bunker, Lex and Tim feasted out on a buffet that had assumingly been cooked up by Chef Alejandro. However, the two Raptors that had killed Muldoon had also found their way into the Visitor’s Center. The two children took shelter in the Visitor’s Centerkitchen, only for one of the Raptors to follow them in. Calling to her partner, the second Raptor appeared and the two animals began to stalk the children. After a short engagement, Tim and Lex managed to lock one of the Raptors in a large walk-in freezer, while the other watched the children flee from the room.

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Outside the kitchen, the children encountered Dr. Grant and Dr. Sattler, who took them to the Park control room so that the Park systems could be rebooted. As they entered, however, the second Raptor from the kitchen followed the group, where she attempted to force her way into the room. Tim Murphy, who stood by in shock, was told by Dr. Alan Grant to get away from the door, and so joined his sister by Dennis Nedry’s computer station. Lex, who was familiar with computers, was able to figure out the system and reboot the door locks, security systems, and phones. With the Raptor locked out, Dr. Grant used the moment of calm to call Hammond and request that a helicopter be sent out to pick them up. However, the conversation was cut short when Dr. Sattler noticed that the Raptor was planning on breaking through the glass wall from the Mr. DNA ride. As the Raptor busted through the glass, Dr. Grant tried shooting the animal thrice before the gun jammed. Abandoning the weapon, Dr. Grant instead had the group escape the room through the air ducts. Kicking the ladder away from the gap in the drop-ceiling tiles in hopes that it would dissuade the Raptor from following them, the Raptor instead dismounted from the computer desks she was standing on and jumped through the ceiling tiles where she hung herself from the support beam. Unfortunately, Lex was on the ceiling tile the Raptor had jumped through, and Grant had to kick the Raptor in the face in an effort to get the Raptor to let go. Letting go of her support, the Raptor fell, bringing Lex with her. Lex was able to be hoisted back up just before the Raptor bit her leg.

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Following the ducts to the rotunda, the group found that the Raptor had pursued them there from the control room. Seeing only one way of escape, the group jumped onto the mounted skeletons, only for the Raptor to follow. The mounts, unable to support their weight, quickly began to break apart and tumbled to the floor, sending the four human and one archosaurian riders along with. As the group recovered from their falls, Dr. Ellie Sattler looked up to find the Raptor that she had encountered in the Maintenance Shed sneaking underneath a plastic tarp that was being used to cover a hole in the uncompleted Visitor’s Center wall. As the two Raptors closed in on the humans, the group was saved just in the nick of time as the second Raptor was about to pounce on her human prey. The Tyrannosaurus rex had come through the hole in the wall, and grabbed the Raptor from mid-air, and crushed it in her jaws. Using the distraction the T. rex provided, the humans fled. Meanwhile, the Raptor that had pursued the group through the Visitor’s Center foolishly attacked the larger theropod. The T. rex snapped at her, but could not reach her. Rolling her head, the Raptor fell into the Tyrannosaur‘s mouth where she was killed and then thrown against the Tyrannosaurus skeleton and the T. rex let out a mighty bellow. Hammond then drove the survivors to the Helicopter pad, where they were airlifted off the island.

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Meanwhile, Dr. Harding, Jess, and Nima reached the Visitor’s Center unaware that the other survivors had just recently fled the island. Once inside, Dr. Harding heard a radio trying to contact them. Locating it, he spoke with Dr. Sorkin, who helped talk him through curing Nima of her ailment. The T. rexattacked once again, forcing the trio to avoid it as best they could, eventually managing to lure it away with the help of the tour vehicle. The three regrouped back inside the Visitor’s Center, but when mention of a rescue was made, Nima pulled her gun on the Hardings and told them there wouldn’t be a rescue.A team of mercenaries appeared on Isla Nublar after the rescue call with the sole purpose of rescuing the Hardings and other survivors left behind. The team consisted of Billy Yoder, Oscar Morales, and Danny “D-Caf” Cafaro. They flew to the Visitor’s Center to link up with Bravo team–a second unit–but when they tried to radio them, all they heard was gunfire. Arriving at the Visitor’s Center, they found the team massacred bar one member, Vargas–who suffered from a bout of psychosis and tried to attack them. Alpha team subdued Vargas and noticed a strange wound on his arm, suggesting a venomous animal bite caused him to hallucinate and led to his psychosis. Billy and Oscar examined the building’s security recordings trying to figure out what attacked Bravo Team and found recordings of Nima marching the Hardings out of the building at gunpoint.

Vargas was killed by unseen dinosaurs as the Visitor’s Center was invaded by another batch of animals. Oscar and Yoder rushed back to the chopper. Meanwhile, Nima and the Hardings took a break from their trek in the jungle. Dr. Harding convinced Nima to let him build a campfire, claiming the smoke would keep any wandering dinosaurs away. Dr. Harding hoped the rescue team would be able to see it. Later, while Dr. Harding distracted Nima with questions about her family, Jess managed to steal the radio, slip away and contact Yoder, but was found out by Nima, who forced them to keep moving.

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Yoder’s team saw the smoke from Gerry’s fire, but a Pteranodon attacked their helicopter, forcing them to make an emergency landing. While D-Caf tried to repair the chopper, Yoder and Oscar headed into the jungle to locate their targets. The pair split up to try and pick up a trail, but Yoder disturbed a nest of Dilophosaurus eggs in the process, causing the mother to attack. He managed to hold the creature off long enough for Oscar to arrive and drive it away. At the same time, Nima’s group reached a dead end at the Bone Shaker, an unfinished roller coaster built into the side of a cliff. The trio managed to get the ride operational and attempted to ride it down to the base of the cliff, but as they did so, a pack of Herrerasaurus attacked them. They manage to ward them off, but the coaster cars nearly ran off the damaged tracks in the process. Yoder and Oscar located the group and disarmed Nima, though she implied that she’s met Oscar before. The group headed back to the helicopter, but found that D-Caf had disappeared. The T. rex reappeared and made its way towards them, forcing Oscar to fix the chopper himself. They managed to get into the air just in time.

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The last target to be rescued was Dr. Laura Sorkin, and the party headed out to the field lab to pick her up. En route, Nima argued with Oscar, clearly having history with him, but the fight was stopped once the group reached the lab and met with Dr. Sorkin. However, when they arrived, she refused to leave with them forcing Yoder to convince her by exploiting her desire for Isla Nublar to become a wildlife preserve for the dinosaurs. She finally conceded, but asked to be allowed to put an experimental cure for the dinosaurs’ engineered Lysine deficiency into the water supply to keep the group of Parasaurolophus she had been studying from dying off while she was away. As she, Gerry and Jess did this, Nima tried to hijack the helicopter and escape. Yoder and Oscar stopped her, but in the scuffle, a thrown knife damaged the controls. Meanwhile, Dr. Sorkin’s group was attacked by a pack of Velociraptors, forcing them to take refuge atop the water tower. The group spotted the helicopter and called for help, only for the chopper to crash into the tower.

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Dr. Sorkin’s group managed to escape the falling water tower, fleeing into the maintenance tunnels to escape the Raptors. Nima, Yoder, and Oscar survived the chopper crash, but all of the mercenaries’ weapons were destroyed when the wreckage caught fire. Oscar took off to scout the area, leaving Yoder to guard the unconscious Nima. When Oscar reached the field lab, he saw the Raptors managing to open the door to the tunnels, and he followed them inside. Meanwhile, Yoder found the embryo canister in Nima’s backpack, and when she finally came to, she was forced to make a deal with Yoder to split the profits from the embryo delivery. At this moment, aParasaurolophus ran towards them, followed by the T. rex, forcing them to hide in the tunnels as well. Realizing he dropped the embryos during the chase, Yoder went back out to get them, moving slowly and silently to avoid detection by the Tyrannosaurus. After retrieving the embryos, he and Nima proceeded further into the tunnels, but Nima saw glowing eyes in the dark and refused to continue on without a better light source than the red emergency lights. As Yoder tried to power up the main lights, Oscar tracked a Raptor further down the tunnel. He drew his knife and attacked the dinosaur, miraculously managing to kill it in single combat. Afterward, Yoder and Nima found him and revealed their plan to sell the stolen embryos. Oscar, while hesitant, agreed to go along with it on the condition that he and Yoder complete their original mission to evacuate the other survivors.

June 13Edit

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Meanwhile, Dr. Sorkin revealed to Dr. Harding that she had actually put her lysine deficiency cure into the Park’s main water supply instead of just the holding pens, which would eventually cure all the dinosaurs and eliminate Jurassic Park’s lysine contingency entirely. As the two of them argued over the ethical implications of Dr. Sorkin’s actions, Jess snuck away with Dr. Sorkin’s cigarettes, hoping to have a smoke. A Raptor attacked her, forcing her to flee back to Dr. Harding and Dr. Sorkin, leading the rest of the Raptor pack right to them. They fought the dinosaurs off until the others arrived, with Oscar driving the Raptors away by wounding the pack leader with his knife. Soon after, steam jets began escaping from the nearby valves. Dr. Sorkin explained that this meant that the Park’s power plant was on the verge of an explosion, and would have to be reset manually before it went off. Now regrouped, the survivors headed to the Geothermal power plant to reset the main grid. The group worked together to get inside the plant, release the built-up steam pressure and reset the system, but in the process, triggered a safety protocol that began sealing the entire plant behind heavy metal blast doors. However, the Raptors entered just before the doors could fully close, trapping the survivors inside with the animals. The group headed to the upper level to escape the Raptors, but realized that the door controls on their level were burned out, meaning someone would have to go back down to the lower level and use the panel there. Oscar

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volunteered, and managed to hold off the Raptors long enough to reopen the doors before being killed. The rest of the group ran into the boiler room and sealed themselves in. However, once inside they found the body of a man covered in what looked like a nest. Yoder identified him as D-Caf, alive but brain-dead from the same poison that affected Nima and Vargas, with dinosaur eggs laid in his abdomen. Dr. Sorkin revealed that the dinosaurs responsible were Troodon, explaining she had been ordered to destroy them after their poisonous bite had been discovered, but couldn’t bring herself to do it, keeping them alive in the quarantine pens for study instead. Angered by Dr. Sorkin’s actions, Yoder grabbed her and drew his knife, threatening to kill her.As Dr. Harding managed to convince Yoder to let Dr. Sorkin live, Jess discovered a grate leading back into the maintenance tunnels. As they tried to open the grate, the Troodon pack returned to their nest and attacked. Yoder held them back as the group got the grate open and ran through the tunnels with the Troodon on their heels, but ended up getting separated. Dr. Harding and Nima managed to find a ladder and made their way back to the surface, but everyone else remained trapped in the tunnels. Dr. Harding tried to go back for Jess and the others, but Nima convinced him they could take care of themselves.

Once out of the facility and out of danger, Nima and Dr. Harding took a moment to catch their breath on the tour road they had stumbled onto after exiting the hatch. Nima revealed her heritage and the history of her people and her life. She stated that Isla Nublar was her birthplace and the homeland of her people. They were forcibly removed by InGen after they had leased the island from the Costa Rican authorities. Furthermore, she confessed that Oscar was a part of the team that was sent in to remove them. Finally, she concluded that she was worried about the future of her daughter and whether she could support her. After the lengthy revelation, Harding and Nima spotted the still running tour car that Harding had used to distract the T. rex back at the Visitor Center, they concluded that they would use the vehicle to ride to the Marine Facility and regroup with the others.

The two separated groups reunited in the marine facility. Yoder quickly explained that they must get off the island soon, or they risked being caught and killed in the B-52 napalm bombing ordered in to destroy the island. A panicked Dr. Sorkin skulked away from the group and abandoned them in the facility as she took an elevator down to the marine exhibit. Dr. Harding deduced that a coded password was required to recall the elevator and follow Dr. Sorkin down. Harding figured out the code had to do with the prehistoric periods prior to the Triassic period and the first true dinosaurs. He examined a monument constructed in the middle of the room that displayed the varying periods in order of oldest being at the bottom to youngest at the top. The rock layers were adorned with their respective labels for each period.

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Dr. Harding chose Permian and unlocked the lift. The group took the elevator down. Upon reaching the underwater facility, the group walked toward a domed structure at the end of the hallway. They spotted Dr. Sorkin and overheard her phone conversation with InGen to call off the bombing–going as far as extortion and kidnapping in order to do so. When that didn’t seem to work, Dr. Sorkin released the Park’s captive Tylosaurus into the lagoon, despite Dr. Harding’s pleading. The newly freed Tylosaurus slammed into the side of the facility, knocking Dr. Sorkin into the pool and devoured her. Meanwhile, Yoder called his employers and had them delay the bombing, but as the group made their way back to the elevator he pulled out a grenade that he had taken off of D-Caf’s body, explaining that with his men dead, he only cared about delivering the embryos and didn’t want the Hardings slowing him down. He offered to take Nima along, but Nima, disgusted by Yoder’s betrayal, refused. Yoder threw the grenade as he escaped into the elevator to the surface. The grenade detonated and cracked the facility’s windows, causing water to seep in. As the elevator ascended, however,

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Yoder realized that the embryos were gone and that they had been stolen by Jess while he wasn’t looking.Dr. Harding and the others managed to seal themselves in the aquarium’s control room before the rotunda above flooded completely, only to find that the damaged pressure seal on the door was causing the pool to slowly flood this room as well. Nima noticed that the only way out was through a sea cave in the wall of the lagoon, which she remembered from her childhood. The submerged cave would take them directly to the surface. Donning scuba gear, the three made their through the water and into the cave, narrowly avoiding the Tylosaurus in the process. They eventually reached the surface and headed for the docks, where Nima’s contacts left her a boat waiting after Nedry’s failed delivery.

Jurassic-Park-The-Game-review-2

The trio eventually met up with a belligerent Yoder at the shipping dock entrance. A confrontation ensued with Nima getting into a scuffle with the mercenary. During the scrap, the Tyrannosaurus stalked into the shipping yard forcing all four of the humans to freeze in their positions. The T. rex started to sniff at Jess when her father gently nudged the cryocan with his foot causing it to roll toward the dock’s edge. In a momentary lapse of judgment, Yoder scrambled to save the can before it fell into the water. Although he had saved the can, he had caught the attention of the large theropod. The Tyrannosaurus only hesitated a moment before it engulfed the man with its jaws and lifted him in the air to consume him. Yoder, while in the process of being attacked, dropped the can and with the Tyrannosaur’s back turned to them, Nima raced to retrieve the can, Gerry and Jess followed closely behind. The T. rex was alerted to the movement behind her and stomped after them. Harding told Nima and Jess to go to the skywalk, a walkway above the dock, in order to escape.The Tyrannosaurus followed after Dr. Harding but collided with the underside of the skywalk, causing it to collapse as Jess and Nima crossed it. Jess was flung over the side but managed to hang on. The cryocan was also knocked out of Nima’s hand and it fell to the ground. This commotion attracted the Tyrannosaur’s attention and it turn back towards Jess. Jess pleaded to Nima for help and Nima came to her rescue just in time. As theTyrannosaurus approached, however, it stepped on the cryocan and destroyed it. Dr. Harding grabbed a steel pipe and swung the pipe into the Tyrannosaurus leg, successfully gaining her undivided attention, thus allowing his companions to escape to the last remaining boat at the end of the docks. Dr. Harding scrambled through the container yard with the large theropod hot on his heels. Dr. Harding eventually found cover inside an animal cage and the T. rex couldn’t reach the man with its jaws due to the small opening at the end that was suited for caging smaller, man-sized dinosaurs. Frustrated, the animal thrashed about and finally flung the cage toward the pier where the small boat was located.

T-rex

Dr. Harding noticed that he was less than a one hundred meters from salvation and he scrambled to his feet and sprinted for the boat that his daughter was pull-starting. The Tyrannosaurus burst through the gate that separated the pier from the container yard and followed Harding down the dock. The animal nipped at Dr. Harding for the final stretch as he neared the end of the dock where he finally managed to jump onto the moving boat as the carnivore made one last effort to grab him. The boat successfully swept its three passengers away from the angered animal that bellowed loudly from the end of the dock. Dr. Harding consoled a distraught Nima and offered to aid her and her daughter once he returned to Dallas, Texas–intending to resume work at the Dallas Zoo. Nima thanked him for the help. Meanwhile, Jess discovered a piece of luggage that contained thousands of dollars, thus enabling Nima to help her daughter anyway. Everything working out for Nima and the Hardings in the end.

AftermathEdit

In the wake of the Isla Nublar Incident, the “demolition-deconstruction” of the island alone cost InGen 126 million dollars. The costs of paying off survivors for their silence, along with the tens of millions of dollars from lawsuits by the families of those who died in the incident pushed InGen onto the verge of Chapter 11. Four years later, the attack of young Cathy Bowman on a beach of Isla Sorna, InGen’s Site B, led to the InGen Board of directors voting to remove John Hammond as CEO of InGen and replacing him with his nephew, Peter Ludlow. Ludlow then used his position to attempt a harvest of the dinosaurs that had been released to roam free on Isla Sorna after a hurricane hit the island not long after the Isla Nublar Incident. The harvest operation was mostly a failure, due to John Hammond sending his own team to thwart his nephew. Although Ludlow managed to capture a male adult Tyrannosaurus, this led to the San Diego Incident, which likely sent InGen further into debt. The U.S Air Force not knowing of Nima, Dr. Harding, and Jess’s escape, canceled the bombing on Isla Nublar. By not bombing Isla Nublar, the park buildings were left to be taken over by nature while Rexy lived freely on the island for nearly 10 years, living off the other dinosaurs on the island before being put back into captivity by InGen and Masrani Global Corporation, InGen’s new parent company when they returned to the island to build Jurassic World.

People InvolvedEdit

Endorsement TeamEdit

Jurassic Park EmployeesEdit

Main article: Jurassic Park Employees

Other Authorized PersonnelEdit

Unauthorized PersonnelEdit

Dinosaurs InvolvedEdit

AppearancesEdit

GalleryEdit

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JURASSIC PARK & JURASSIC WORLD

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Jurassic Park (novel)

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Jurassicparknovel

Jurassic Park is a novel written by Michael Crichton, best-selling author of various other books, such as the Andromeda Strain, released in November 1990. In the Spring of 1990 an earlier draft of the novel was given to Steven Spielberg, who immediately started the production of a movie adaption. Themovie of the same name was released in 1993, and a sequel, The Lost World was written in 1995.

Contents

[show]

PlotEdit

The narrative begins by slowly tying together a series of incidents involving strange animal attacks in Costa Rica and on Isla Nublar, the main setting for the story. Paleontologist Alan Grant and his paleobotanist graduate student Ellie Sattler are abruptly whisked away by millionaire John Hammond (founder and CEO of International Genetic Technologies, or InGen) for a weekend visit to a ”biological preserve” he has established on an island 120 miles west off the coast of Costa Rica.

Recent events have spooked Hammond’s considerable investors, so, to placate them, he means for Grant and Sattler to act as fresh consultants. They stand in counterbalance to a well-known mathematician and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm and a lawyer representing the investors, Donald Gennaro. Both are pessimistic, but Malcolm, having been consulted before the park’s creation, is emphatic in his prediction that the park will collapse, as it is an unsustainable simple structure bluntly forced upon a complex system.

Jurassic park logo novel by Henrique

Jurassic Park novel logo created by H.Z. Tomassi

Upon arrival the park is revealed to contain living dinosaurs. The creatures were cloned dinosaurs using ancient DNA found in amber-entombedmosquitoes that had sucked dinosaurian blood. Gaps in the genetic code have been filled in with reptilian, avian, or amphibian DNA. To control the population, all specimens on the island are bred to be female as well as lysine-deficient. Hammond proudly showcases InGen’s advances in genetic engineering and shows his guests through the island’s vast array of automated systems.

Countering Malcolm’s dire predictions with youthful energy, Hammond groups the consultants with his grandchildren, Tim and Alexis ”Lex” Murphy. While touring the park with the children, Grant finds an eggshell, which seems to prove Malcolm’s earlier assertion that the dinosaurs have been breeding against the geneticists’ design (the population graphs proudly introduced earlier were naturally distributed, reflecting a breeding population, rather than displaying the distinct pattern that a population reared in batches ought to display).

Malcolm suggests a flaw in their method of analyzing dinosaur populations, in that motion detectors were set to search only for the expected number of creatures in the park and not for any higher number. The park’s controllers are reluctant to admit that the park has long been operating beyond their constraints. Malcolm also points out the height distribution of the Procompsognathus forms a Gaussian distribution, the curve of a breeding population.

In the midst of this, the corrupt chief programmer of Jurassic Park’s controlling software, Dennis Nedry, attempts corporate espionage for Lewis Dodgson, a geneticist and agent of InGen’s archrival, Biosyn. By activating a backdoor he wrote into the system, Nedry manages to shut down the park’s security systems and quickly steal 30 frozen embryos (2 of each kind). He then attempts to smuggle them out to a contact waiting at the auxiliary dock deep in the park. But his plan goes awry: during a sudden tropical storm Nedry becomes lost and stops his stolen Jeep at a dead end. He exits the Jeep to determine his location. A Dilophosaurusapproaches him from afar, blinds him with its poisonous saliva, and then tears him open. Nedry’s plan called for him to secretly deliver the embryos and return to the park’s control room within fifteen minutes, but, without him to quietly patch the system, the park’s security is left off, leaving the electrified fences deactivated.

Without the barriers to contain them, dinosaurs begin to escape. The adult Tyrannosaurus Rex (nicknamed ”Rexy”) attacks the guests on tour, destroying the vehicles, and leaving Grant and the children lost in the park. During the attack, Ed Regis runs and hides from the adult Tyrannosaur. He falls down a hillside and is eventually killed by the Juvenile Tyrannosaur.

Ian Malcolm is gravely injured during the incident but is soon found by Gennaro and park game warden Robert Muldoon and spends the remainder of the novel slowly dying as, in between lucid lectures and morphine-induced rants, he tries to help those in the main compound understand their predicament and survive.

The park’s upper management — engineer and park supervisor John Arnold, chief geneticist Henry Wu,Muldoon, and Hammond — struggle to return power to the park, while the veterinarian, Dr. Harding, takes care of the critically injured Malcolm. For a time they manage to get the park largely back in order. But a series of errors on their part plunge the park into greater disarray. The viciously intelligent Velociraptors, referred to by characters as ”raptors”, finally escape. They soon kill Wu and Arnold, and injure Muldoon, Gennaro, and Harding. Finally, Grant and the children slowly make their way back to the central compound, carrying news that several young raptors, bred and raised in the island’s wilds, were on board the Anne B, the island’s supply ship, when it departed for the mainland.

Grant is then able to turn the power back on, while Ellie distracts the Velociraptors so that they won’t get to him. After escaping from several Velociraptors, Grant, Gennaro, Tim, and Lex are able to make it to the control room, where Tim is able to contact the Anne B and tell them to return. The survivors are then able to organize themselves and eventually secure their own lives. Word soon reaches them that the crew of the Anne B has discovered and killed the raptor stowaways.

Gennaro tries to order the island destroyed as a dangerous asset, but Grant rejects his authority, claiming that even though they cannot control the island, they have a responsibility to understand just what happened and how many dinosaurs have already escaped to the mainland. Finally Grant, Sattler, Muldoon, and Gennaro set out into the park to find the wild raptor nests and compare hatched eggs with the island’s revised population tally. Cautious in this pursuit, they emerge unharmed. Meanwhile, Hammond, while taking a walk around the park, decides to salvage and restore the park to its original state, but gets injured, then killed and eaten by a pack of compys. As for the dinosaurs’ breeding, it is eventually revealed that the frog DNA used to fill gaps in certain strands somehow enabled some of the dinosaurs to change sex, as some species of frogs can do.

In the end the island is suddenly and violently razed by the Costa Rican Air Force. Survivors of the incident are indefinitely detained by the United States and Costa Rican governments. Weeks later, Grant is visited by Dr. Martin Guitierrez, an American field biologist who lives in Costa Rica, and has found a Procompsognathuscorpse. Guitierrez informs Grant that an unknown pack of animals (presumed to be the compys or the raptors) has been eating crops rich in lysine (the molecule the animals were designed to be deficient in) and killing livestock as they migrate toward the Costa Rican jungle. He also informs Grant that none of them, with the possible exception of Tim and Lex, are going to be leaving any time soon.

See Jurassic Park (novel)/Chapters for plot summaries by chapter.

CharactersEdit

  • Dr. Alan Grant– Paleontologist who participated in the test run of Jurassic Park. John Hammond convinces Grant and his coworker Dr. Ellie Sattler to take a tour of this preserve and later to endorse the park itself. Grant found himself becoming the father figure and hero for Lex and Tim. He developed a better understanding, not just of children, but also of the consequences of interfering with nature.
  • Dr. Ellie Sattler– She is Dr. Alan Grant’s graduate student, and joined him on the tour of InGen’s dinosaur preserve. She is engaged to a doctor.
  • Dr. Ian Malcolm– Mathematician who participated in the testing of Jurassic Park. He specializes in the study of the chaos theory and refers to himself as a ”chaotician”. Malcolm is John Hammond’s primary critic, accurately predicting the instability of Hammond’s creation. Malcolm is seriously injured in the first book, and is even presumed dead – but in the second book, The Lost World, he returns alive, but crippled. Malcolm is an eccentric character who dresses entirely in black; he is described as having the mannerisms of a rock star in the original Jurassic Park, but is sobered by his experiences there and returns as a more measured man in The Lost World.
  • John Hammond– Hammond is the creator of Jurassic Park and founder of InGen. He is likened to Walt Disney and his Disneyland. He is depicted as a mean-spirited CEO, solely interested in profit and (fatally) lacking interest in the technicalities of genetic engineering. Hammond is killed by compys; therefore, he does not appear in the novel The Lost World.
  • Dr Lewis Dodgson– A Biosyn agent, he plays a much larger role in the second book, The Lost World. He was seen briefly in a meeting with Dennis Nedry. Dodgson’s name was created from the combination of a famous Victorian author’s pen name (Lewis Carroll) and his real last name (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson).
  • John Arnold– Arnold, ran the main control center from within the visitor’s center. After Dennis Nedry turned off the power to the park, Arnold volunteered to go outside and restore it, subsequently falling prey to a Velociraptor.
  • Robert Muldoon– Hammond’s alcoholic game warden from his nature reserve in Kenya. Muldoon was in charge of guarding the Velociraptors before they escaped from their cage. Muldoon survives and leaves the island after having shot many dinosaurs with a rocket launcher, putting a ”needle” (tranquilizer dart) into the larger of the two T-rexs which eventually caused its death by drowning, burying Ed Regis’ remains, and locating Dennis Nedry’s half-eaten corpse.
  • Dennis Nedry– The second main human antagonist in both the novel and the film. Nedry worked for John Hammond and was in charge of networking Jurassic Park’s computers. Nedry didn’t know what InGen was actually doing, and was ordered to program without many details. Eventually Lewis Dodgson found out that Nedry was in discomfort and offers him $750,000 to steal the dinosaur embryos. Nedry is poisoned and subsequently killed by a Dilophosaurus.
  • Dr Henry Wu– Wu was the chief geneticist in Jurassic Park and head of the team that created the dinosaurs. He proposes genetically altering further Saurian creations to make them more manageable, something that Hammond opposes. Eventually he is killed by Velociraptors.
  • Ed Regis– A Public Relations manager for InGen who was present during Dr. Grant’s visit to the park, and acted as a tour guide he later runs away when the T rex breaks out Leaving Tim and Lex. He is later killed when he returns to the road where he is played with and later eaten by the juvenile T-Rex.
  • Donald Gennaro– Gennaro was the lawyer that accompanied the first group to Isla Nublar. Gennaro survives, but is mentioned as having died of dysentery sometime in between the first novel and its sequel, The Lost World. He is physically fit, young, intelligent and occasionally brave.
  • Lex Murphy– Lex is Tim Murphy’s younger sister and John Hammond’s granddaughter. She is a sporty young girl who loves baseball and is relatively outgoing.
  • Tim Murphy– Tim is Lex’s older brother and John Hammond’s grandson. He is very intelligent for his age and is easily annoyed by his younger sister. He is interested in Computers and Dinosaurs.
  • Dr Gerry Harding– Jurassic Park’s chief veterinarian. It is not made clear whether he is related to Sarah Harding but there are several hints. Michael Crichton himself later revealed that this was the case.[citation needed]
  • Dr Marty Guitierrez– A biologist from the United States who moved to Costa Rica. He is the one who identifies the compys and at the end tells Grant that some dinosaurs may have escaped.

Writing Edit

George Poinar, Jr. and his wife Roberta Hess were the first scientists who came up with the idea that ancient DNA could be extracted from insects fossilized in amber. The idea that extinct animals could be recreated from paleo-DNA quickly arose afterwards.

Michael Crichton started to use this notion as a plot element for a story. In an interview Crichton said that it took ”10 years from start to finish” for this novel. Since the novel was published in November 1990, it was in 1980 that his first ideas formed.

In 1983 Crichton wrote a screenplay about a young graduate student who genetically engineered a pterodactyl from fossil DNA. Crichton said in an interview, ”the screenplay didn’t work out. It was too fantastic an event to be kept secret, which was what happened in that story.” Crichton worked for years to make the story more convincing. ”The problem always with these creatures is that once you have them, then what do you do with them? I mean, what is the story after they exist? It wasn’t very satisfactory in that way, and I gave it up.”[1][2]

Michael Crichton also stopped working on ”Jurassic Park” in the early 1980s also because ”America was in the grip of a dinosaur fad . . . I decided to wait until the fad waned to resume work on my fantasy story.”[3]

Crichton also didn’t believe at first that it was possible to recreate dinosaurs, and that was one of the main reasons why he abandoned the idea. But during the following years ”there was more and more research that suggested that it wasn’t so unlikely, and I began to take it in that way more seriously.”

Crichton did years of research before he started to write the story. In the acknowledgments section of the novel Crichton listed some of his sources for the novel.

”I have drawn on the work of many eminent paleontologists”:

”I have also made use of the efforts of the new generation of illustrators”:

The discussions about Chaos theory were inspired by books like Mathematics and the unexpected[6] of Ivar Ekeland and Chaos: Making a New Science by James Gleick.

All characters for the novel where ”based even loosely on real people”. The works and the personality of physicist Heinz Pagels provided the inspiration for the character of Ian Malcolm. Alan Grant was based on the paleontologist Jack Horner. John Hammond ”is the least based on anybody”.

Crichton started to write the actual novel by the time that his daughter Taylor was born in 1989. Crichton said that there was a causal link between the two events. ”I bought a lot of stuffed toys, and they were all dinosaurs because that was what was available at that time. My wife didn’t like it. She had a colour scheme for the nursery and I was disrupting that. There were all these large, brightly coloured animals. So we had a kind of agreement that I wouldn’t buy any more but then I bought some more. It was clearly obsessional. I had to begin to wonder, at some point, what it was about dinosaurs that fascinated me so much or why I thought that they were so tied to childhood. And some of those concerns found their way into the book.”

One problem that Crichton had to solve was why the dinosaurs would be recreated in the first place. ”Although I believed that it was possible to genetically engineer these creatures … I couldn’t see who would pay for it. Because it’s not a cure for cancer. You know, it’s very entertaining, and the only thing I could think of was that it would be some form of entertainment.” This was why the novel took place in a theme park. Crichton wrote the story from the point of view of a young boy who was present when the dinosaurs escaped.

When his first draft was finished he sended it to the usual five or six people who read his drafts. But all of them hated the story. Crichton got angry reactions like ”Why would you write a book like this?” But when he asked what was precisely wrong with it, they couldn’t point at something particular. ”They just hated … every bit of it.” Crichton wrote two more drafts but the response was the same.

Then one of the reader said that the most annoying feature of the story was that it had a child’s point of view. They said, ”I want this to be a story for me.” Then Crichton rewrote his novel, this time it had an adult point of view. And then everybody liked it.

Reception Edit

The book became a bestseller and Michael Crichton’s signature novel. It was also given good reviews by critics. GoodReads has given it a 3.82 out of 5 based on 404,831 ratings.[7]

The success of the book was sparked again by the film adaptation. Paul Bogaards, Knopf’s director of promotions, said ”We’ve sold over 70,000 copies this year (1993) alone. And there’s a tremendous demand for Michael Crichton’s books.”[8]

Notable Versions Edit

The Gift EditionEdit

Jurassic-park-book

In august 1993 publisher Alfred A. Knopf is releasing 15,000 copies of a special-edition hard-cover printing of Jurassic Park. Jurassic Park – The Gift Edition is packaged with a transparent vinyl jacket, colored endpapers, a preface by Michael Crichton and Crichton’s autograph. There also are 12 color paintings of dinosaurs.[8]

Audio Version Edit

9780754054016

Cover Art for the Complete and Unabridged Version

The first novel had three audiobook versions released; two Complete and Unabridged versions and an Abridged version.

The Unabridged is read by William Roberts, and is approx. 13 hours, 55 minutes and is on 12 CDs. However, this variant was only released in the United Kingdom, and is thus very difficult to find. It was released in early 2000.

The Abridged version is somewhat easier to find, but was released on a cassette only. If you look online, you can find digital versions of this variant. It is read by John Heard and is approx. 2 hours and 51 minutes.

A 25th Anniversary unabridged audio edition narrated by Scott Brick was released in May 2015. The digitial version is readily available.

Cover art Edit

DinosaursEdit

The following prehistoric creatures were featured in Jurassic Park.

Named DinosaursEdit

MapEdit

Jurassic Park novel locations

Jurassic Park novel locations

Created by BastionMonkCreated by BastionMonk

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Further reading Edit

Sources Edit

  1. Note Jurassic Park M Crichton notes
  2. Beyond Jurassic Park interview
  3. Jurassic Park – The Gift Edition, preface by Michael Crichton.
  4. Colbert Bios at vertpaleo.org
  5. gurche.com
  6. amazon
  7. Jurassic Park, GoodReads.com, information retrieved 10-12-2013.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Warren T., Jurassic Park strikes again. The Baltimore Sun, August 20, 1993. Link.

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