empire rank system old version

Rank insignia of the Galactic Empire/old version

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Rank insignia of the Galactic Empire refers to badges of military rank which were used by officers of the Imperial Military. All officers in the Service wore one or another of these insignia.

Contents

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Officer ranks

In 0 BBY, Imperial officers of the Galactic Empire wore insignia consisting of a confusing collection of multi-colored rank squares on the left breast of the officer’s uniform with a combination of several metal cylinders to either side of the rank badge. By the next few years, the rank squares had become a much simpler collection of red and blue squares with the code cylinders still in use.

In the Galactic Civil War, most Imperial officers were verbally addressed as ”Commander” with the exception of Admirals, such as Admiral Kendal Ozzel and Piett who were addressed as ”Admiral”. It should be noted that ”commander” is an acceptable form of address for captains, majors, colonels, or anyone of any rank who commands a military unit. Grand Moff Tarkin was referred to as ”Governor”. With such generic terms, the Star Wars films give little hint to a system of ranks and insignia. Over the years, however, the Expanded Universe has established a system of ranks and insignia which matches closely to the characters and the ranks and authority which they most likely held.

Navy Rank Army Rank Version One Version Two
Grand Admiral Grand General OldMoff GrandAd
Grand Moff Grand Moff Moff1 Moff2
Moff Moff 115px Moff2
High Admiral Surface Marshal HighAdm2 HighAdm
Fleet Admiral High General OldFltAdm SWARSFLTADM
Admiral General OldAdm ImpAdmiral
Vice Admiral Lieutenant General ImpViceAdm2 ImpViceAdm
Rear Admiral Major General ImpRADM2 ImpRADM
Commodore Brigadier ImpBrigadier 75px
Captain of the Line High Colonel HighColonel LineCaptain
Captain Colonel ImpColonel ImpCaptain
Commander Lieutenant Colonel ImpLTCOL ImpCommander
Lieutenant Commander Major ImpMajor ImpLCDR
Lieutenant Captain ImpO-3 ImpLT
Sublieutenant Lieutenant Imp1Lt ImpLTsub
Ensign Second Lieutenant Imp2Lt ImpEnsign
Midshipman Officer Candidate MIDN MIDN

Enlisted ranks

Imperial enlisted personnel have never been shown to have any type of insignia, but do have various types of uniforms which could indicate seniority among the enlisted rank structure. The uniforms appear to range from Soldiers and Technicians, to Sergeants and Naval NCOs, as well as Warrant Officers and Command Sergeants. Each of these groups is shown in the feature films to have various types of uniforms but never have been shown wearing any type of identifying insignia.

Stormtroopers

Stormtroopers apparently use the same rank system as the Imperial Army, but rarely wear any type of outward insignia. It is mentioned that Stormtroopers most likely have an identification scanner, built into their helmets, which can determine the rank and seniority of other stormtroopers. This does not explain, however, the colored shoulder pads used by Stormtroopers on Tatooine. Also, in the Battle of Hoth, a stormtrooper is seen wearing the insignia of an Army Captain on his armor. It is assumed that such insignia display is for the benefit of non-stormtrooper personnel.

In the higher ranks of the Stormtroopers, it can be reasonably assumed that the senior Stormtrooper officers do not wear the Battle Armor on a regular basis, thus a different uniform, for the more casual ”office” setting, would most likely be worn. This explains a number of Imperial officers, seen in the feature films directing groups of Stormtroopers, who appear to be wearing solid black uniforms with rank badges. Such personnel are most likely Stormtrooper commanders whose daily duties do not necessitate the regular wearing of battle armor.

Starfighter Corps

The Imperial pilots of the Starfighter Corps are a subject of great debate. One school of thought is that such personnel are members of the Imperial Navy while another possibility exists that the starfighters comprise an entire separate branch of service. Several different literature sources have provided a feasible rank structure for the Starfighter Corps, with indications that Starfighter pilots are Imperial officers with ranks similar to the Army and Navy combined. No starfighter pilot has ever been seen wearing rank insignia but this may have been since the pilots were only seen in flight suits. It is plausible that a separate duty uniform exists, upon which rank insignia may be displayed.

A conjectural rank system for the Imperial Starfighter Corps is as follows

  • High Marshal (High Admiral)
  • Force Marshal (Fleet Admiral)
  • Chief Marshal (Admiral)
  • Marshall (Vice Admiral)
  • Vice Marshal (Rear Admiral)
  • Flight Commodore (Commodore)
  • Group Captain (Captain)
  • Wing Commander (Commander)
  • Squadron Leader (Lieutenant Commander)
  • Flight Lieutenant (Lieutenant)
  • Flying Officer (Sub-Lieutenant)
  • Pilot Officer (Ensign)
  • Flight Cadet (Midshipman)

Corresponding Imperial Navy rank listed as comparison

Imperial Security Bureau

Members of the Imperial Security Bureau, or the ”ISB”, have only been seen for a brief period of time, aboard the Death Star. A white uniformed ISB Colonel, Wullf Yularen, was in the Death Star conference room along with two ISB NCOs walking past the Death Star main elevator area. In both cases, the ISB personnel were shown to be wearing white uniforms with rank insignia corresponding to Imperial Army and Navy personnel. It is possible that the ISB uses the same insignia, with different rank titles, or that the ISB ranks are identical to those of the Imperial Army.

Behind the scenes

Alternate versions

Rank Alternate Insignia
Officer Candidate OFFCDT
Lieutenant ImpLT2
Major ImpISBMajor
Colonel ImpColonel2
Commodore ImpCommodoreAlt
Major General ImpMajorGeneral
Rear Admiral ImpRearAdmiral
High Admiral ImpHighAdmiral

The insignia scheme devised in A New Hope created an interesting ambiguity in that a review of the film shows some Imperial characters who have apparently the same rank and position, yet display different versions of insignia. This problem recurs in the Star Wars Expanded Universe in that Imperial officers of the same rank wear different badges of office.

The possibility exists that such officers serve in different branches of the service or that the difference in insignia is a means to display seniority or some other badge of distinction. This has never been determined exactly, however, leaving the viewing audience to speculate.

The chart displayed to the right indicates alternate versions of Imperial insignia, when applying to the Version One method seen in A New Hope.

Additional info

In the film Return of the Jedi, a wardrobe problem undiscovered until midway through production resulted in all Imperial characters wearing the same insignia, being that of an Imperial Navy Commander. Thus, the Imperial insignia in Return of the Jedi are often ignored.

The rank of Grand Admiral was first mentioned in the Timothy Zahn novels and is considered the senior most rank of the entire Imperial Service. Grand Admirals, and their Imperial Army counterparts Grand Generals are authorized to wear white uniforms with gold shoulder boards, in addition to the standard badge of rank.

The Empire Strikes Back demonstrated that the Imperial Navy and Army, while using the same rank badges, differentiate between the two services by the spacing of the colored squares on the badge itself. Imperial Army officers use rank badges with thin rank squares on a grey metal frame, while Navy officers display flush rank squares with no spacing in-between. This method of separating the two services apparently did not apply to the rank insignia of A New Hope, since all Imperial personnel, both Army and Navy, appeared to wear the same style of rank badge.

The LucasArts Flight Simulator game Star Wars: TIE Fighter provides a much simpler version of Starfighter Ranks as listed below.

  • Grand Admiral
  • Admiral
  • Vice Admiral
  • General
  • Colonel
  • Major
  • Commander
  • Captain
  • Lieutenant
  • Flight Officer
  • Flight Cadet

Given that the flight simulator ranks appear overly simplified and combine Navy and Army titles indiscriminately, most Star Wars sources consider the TIE Fighter ranks to be contradictory and this rank system is generally ignored.

Annonser

ISLAND OF ADVENTURE

Islands of Adventure

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Universal’s Islands of Adventure
UIOA Logo copy.png

Universal’s Islands of Adventure logo
Slogan Vacation Like You Mean It
(as Universal Orlando Resort)
Location Universal Orlando Resort, Orlando, Florida, United States
Coordinates 28°28′18″N 81°28′17″WCoordinates: 28°28′18″N 81°28′17″W
Theme Islands with myths, legends, dinosaurs, cartoons, superheroes, children’s stories, and Universal franchises
Owner NBCUniversal[1]
Operated by Universal Parks & Resorts
Opened May 28, 1999; 17 years ago
Operating season Year-round
Rides
Total 15
Roller coasters 5 (Dragon Challenge is 2 Coasters)
Water rides 3
Website Official website
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Universal’s Islands of Adventure (commonly known as Islands of Adventure, and formally Universal Studios Islands of Adventure) is a theme park in Orlando, Florida. It opened on May 28, 1999, along with CityWalk, as part of an expansion that converted Universal Studios Florida into the Universal Orlando Resort. The slogan for this theme park, along with Universal Studios Florida, is Vacation Like You Mean It, introduced in 2013 as Universal Orlando Resort.[2][3]

The park’s overall theme is that of a journey of exploration, where guests depart from a main port to visit themed islands, all emphasizing adventure. Initially, the park had six islands. On June 18, 2010, the seventh island, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter (themed to the popular Harry Potter franchise), officially opened at the park. This is Universal’s largest investment since opening. In 2013, Islands of Adventure hosted approximately 8.1 million guests, ranking it seventh among United States parks and eleventh worldwide.[4] The eighth island, Skull Island, opened on July 13, 2016.

Licensed properties included at Islands of Adventure[edit]

Like Universal Studios Florida next door, Islands of Adventure has not limited itself to Universal’s own library, because it licensed other characters from rival studios, many of whom did not own theme parks of their own, as attractions and lands. Some of these include:

History[edit]

Before Islands of Adventure was built, the site was originally planned as a shopping mall called Galleria Orlando.[5] Plans were first drawn up for the mall in 1985, but it was ultimately canceled in 1990.[6]

Preview Center[edit]

During the construction of the park, Universal opened a Preview Center (known as the Islands of Adventure Preview Center) at adjacent Universal Studios Florida. Opening two years before the new theme park, the Preview Center was designed to give guests a sneak peek at some of the themes and attractions for Islands of Adventure. The attraction was located in the Paradise Theater building located in the New York section of Universal Studios Florida, next to the Kongfrontation attraction. In the attraction, guests would walk through various rooms themed to the various ”Islands” in the new park. The final room stated when the Islands of Adventure park would open, and showed guests Universal’s future plans for the Universal Orlando Resort. The Preview Center was closed shortly after the opening of Islands of Adventure.[7]

Opening[edit]

Islands of Adventure had a soft opening beginning March 27, 1999,[8] during which visitors could preview the park at a discounted price while the staff conducted a technical rehearsal and worked on the ”finishing touches.” During this soft opening, guests were informed that attractions might open and close throughout the day without notice and that some attractions might not be open at all. Initial plans were to open the park in mid-May, but this was ultimately delayed until May 28, 1999.[9][10]

After the enormous capital expenditure required to build Islands of Adventure, CityWalk, and the resort hotels, Universal sought to overtake nearby Walt Disney World in attendance. However, with the addition of the second park, new resorts, and entertainment district, the resort was named Universal Studios Escape. Essentially, it seemed that visitors were confused by the name, assuming that Islands of Adventure was a new area added to the already-existing Universal Studios Florida theme park. For the first two years, attendance did not rise as expected.[11] By 2001, the marketing was revamped, clarifying that Islands of Adventure was indeed a second, completely separate park with new rides and attractions. Universal Studios Escape was renamed Universal Orlando Resort, and ended up being the only resort in the Orlando area to actually have an increase in attendance after the September 11 attacks on the United States. Despite this, the attendance of the resort failed to surpass the attendance of the Walt Disney World resort.

Timeline[edit]

Year Events
1983 The first concepts for the Islands of Adventure park are conceived by MCA Recreation Services. Known as ”Cartoon World” designed by Universal Parks & Resorts co-founder Robert Ward, the park would feature rides and attractions based on DC Comics, Dr. Seuss, and Warner Bros..[12]
1993 Universal releases the blockbuster film Jurassic Park on June. Its success resulted in a Jurassic Park attraction opening in Hollywood followed by the second version at Islands of Adventure when that park opened. On September 16, Universal announces plans to add a second theme park and several resorts at its Florida complex.[13]
1995 Construction is expected to begin on Islands of Adventure.[13]
1997 Construction finally begins on Islands of Adventure.[14] Shortly after, the Islands of Adventure Preview Center opened at the adjacent Universal Studios Florida, replacing The Screen Test Home Video Adventure. It allowed guests to preview all six original islands at Islands of Adventure and their rides and attractions within. The Preview Center also included Universal’s plans for an expansion into Universal Orlando Resort.
1999 Islands of Adventure begins soft openings on March 27. Islands of Adventure is officially opened on May 28 with a grand opening ceremony, with the islands Port of Entry, Seuss Landing, The Lost Continent, Jurassic Park, Toon Lagoon, and Marvel Super Hero Island. The Islands of Adventure Preview Center at Universal Studios Florida is closed shortly afterwards.[15]
2000 Flying Unicorn and Storm Force Accelatron debut in the park’s The Lost Continent and Marvel Super Hero Island areas, on May and June 29, respectively. The annual GrinchMas event begins in the park’s Seuss Landing area and in Universal Studios Florida in December.
2002 Universal’s Halloween Horror Nights event is held for the first time ever at Islands of Adventure on October. Each ”island” is transformed into a different twisted world: Port of Entry into Port of Evil, Seuss Landing into Boo-Ville, The Lost Continent into Island of Evil Souls, Jurassic Park into JP Extinction, Toon Lagoon into Treaks and Foons, and Marvel Super Hero Island into Island Under Siege.
2004 Halloween Horror Nights is held in both Islands of Adventure and Universal Studios Florida in October.
2006 Sylvester McMonkey McBean’s Very Unusual Driving Machines is rebuilt into a new concept and officially opened as The High in the Sky Seuss Trolley Train Ride in June.
2007 Universal Studios and Warner Bros. officially announce on May 31, the seventh island at Islands of Adventure, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, at a joint press conference with an expected opening of late 2009 or early 2010.
2008 Flying Unicorn and the Enchanted Oak Tavern closed on July 7 to be replaced by The Wizarding World of Harry Potter.
2009 Universal officially reveals the Wizarding World’s attractions on September 16, including Zonko’s, Honeydukes, Owl Post, Dervish and Banges, Ollivander’s Wand Shop Experience, Frog Choir, Triwizard Spirit Rally, Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey, Filch’s Emporium of Confiscated Goods, and Dragon Challenge and Flight of the Hippogriff, which will replace the Dueling Dragons and Flying Unicorn rides. Oh, The Stories You’ll Hear! opens on October in the park’s Seuss Landing area.
2010 Mat Hoffman’s Aggro Circus debuts on March in the park’s Toon Lagoon amphitheatre, the theater’s first show since Mat Hoffman’s Freakin Crazy Stunt Show in 2002. Dueling Dragons is closed for its final transformation into the Dragon Challenge on May 5. Ice is renamed Hungarian Horntail and Fire is renamed Chinese Fireball. The Wizarding World of Harry Potter begins soft openings for the general public on June 1. The Wizarding World of Harry Potter’s grand opening ceremony took place on June 16 with book series author J. K. Rowling and film series actors Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, Emma Watson, Michael Gambon, Warwick Davis, Tom Felton, Matthew Lewis, James and Oliver Phelps and Bonnie Wright attending. John Williams conducted the Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra into many songs of the first film’s score, including the film series’ prologue, which he composed. The seventh island, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, officially opened on June 18. The area is Islands of Adventure’s biggest investment since the park’s opening. After five years, Triceratops Discovery Trail is finally reopened to the public for a limited time on December 13, speculated to further remain seasonal during peak season.
2011 One of the roofs on Dudley Do-Right’s Ripsaw Falls catches fire on January 1, causing immediate evacuation of the ride. The ride resumed normal operations on March 3, 2011. Universal announces a major refurbishment of The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man ride on May 19, with plans to re-master the ride film in High-definition as well as to update the ride’s technical system and to replace all of the projectors with new 3-D digital projectors.[16][17]
2012 The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man re-opens after refurbishment.
2014 A Celebration of Harry Potter, an annual three-day weekend event celebrated on the last weekend of January, debuts at both Universal Studios Florida and Islands of Adventure on January 24. The Hogwarts Express Hogsmeade station opens on July 1 as well as the King’s Cross station at Universal Studios Florida, connecting park visitors to both Harry Potter theme parks via a full-scale replica of the train that appears in the Harry Potter film series. Dr. Seuss’s ABC opens on August 24 with 26 big blocks with the letters of the English alphabets in the outdoor playground.
2015 Skull Island: Reign of Kong is announced on May 6 as a new land/attraction based on the 2005 film King Kong, opening in the summer of 2016.[18] On May 7, Universal announces a partnership with Nintendo to bring their characters to either Universal Studios Florida or Islands of Adventure park. Raptor Encounter meet & greet attraction officially debuts on May 22.[19] The Incredible Hulk roller coaster closes on September 8 to undergo refurbishment.
2016 The Incredible Hulk‘s refurbishment is completed early April with the placement of the final track piece, and on May 9, Universal revealed new changes to the coaster, which includes a new track, story line, ride vehicle and entrance. Without any press release, Skull Island: Reign of Kong officially opens as the eighth island of Islands of Adventure on July 13. The Incredible Hulk reopened on August 4.

Former attractions[edit]

As with almost any amusement park, older attractions are sometimes removed to make way for newer ones. At Islands of Adventure, some have simply been closed with no replacement like Island Skipper Tours while others like Poseidon’s Fury were changed from their initial concept to the attraction that operates today.

Islands[edit]

Islands of Adventure consists of eight themed ”islands”, the majority of which are based on licensed intellectual properties, with only two lands based on original Universal Studios works. They are, in clockwise order from entry: Port of Entry, Marvel Super Hero Island, Toon Lagoon, Skull Island, Jurassic Park, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, The Lost Continent, and Seuss Landing.

Port of Entry[edit]

The Pharos Lighthouse marks the park’s entrance

Port of Entry is the park’s main entrance and is home to many shops and services including Guest Services aptly named The Open Arms Hotel. The park’s centerpiece, Pharos Lighthouse, is also located within Port of Entry. Each night, this real, functioning lighthouse sends out a bright beam to lead visitors to and from the park’s gates. Like many theme parks using the ”hub and spokes” format, this entry Island contains no rides, and is primarily noted for its boulevard of restaurants and shops.

Marvel Super Hero Island[edit]

Incredible Hulk Coaster

Marvel Super Hero Island is based on the superhero characters featured in Marvel Comics. The area is notable for its comic-book styled architecture; many of the building interiors are created in what could be considered comic book perspective, with exaggerated lines and angles. Meanwhile, many exteriors are painted in a special paint which appears to change color based on the angle from which it is viewed – sometimes purple, sometimes orange. Perhaps most notably, the buildings are all labelled generically, as one would expect the buildings in the background of a comic panel to be: ”Store,” ”Shop,” ”Food,” and ”Comics,” instead of detailed names and logos.

The area is home to a variety of dining outlets and merchandise shops. Food and beverage items can be purchased from Cafe 4 and Captain America Diner. Merchandise items can be bought from a variety of themed stores including Spider-Man Shop (The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man), Marvel Alterniverse Store, Comic Book Shop, and Oakley.

The Incredible Hulk confronts guests as they enter the area with an attention-grabbing roar. Hulk is a high speed launched steel roller coaster which has a top speed of 65 miles per hour (105 km/h). It closed on September 8, 2015 for major refurbishments and reopened in Summer 2016. Storm Force Accelatron is a teacups ride themed after X-Men.[20] Doctor Doom’s Fearfall is a pair of S&S Power Space Shot attractions themed after the Fantastic Four. The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man is a 3-D simulator ride based on the character Spider-Man. The ride is set in New York as Spider-Man prevents The Sinister Syndicate from taking the Statue of Liberty. Meet Spider-Man and the Marvel Super Heroes is a meet-and-greet attraction, where guests can meet superheroes including Wolverine, Storm, Cyclops and Rogue, Spider-Man and Captain America.

In late 2009, The Walt Disney Company (Universal’s biggest competitor in the theme park market) announced that it had sought to acquire Marvel Entertainment. Universal announced that Marvel’s new ownership would not affect Marvel Super Hero Island, and Disney CEO Bob Iger acknowledged that Disney would continue to honor any contracts that Marvel currently has with Disney competitors.[21] In March 2012, Iger revealed that Disney had begun preliminary concepts of incorporating Marvel’s properties into their parks, although no major negotiations with Universal were announced.[22][23] Hong Kong Disneyland has since announced an expansion to its park featuring characters from the Marvel Universe.[24] Disney California Adventure at the Disneyland Resort in California has also since incorporated meet-and-greet Marvel characters, as well as an Avengers Super Hero Half Marathon Weekend at the resort. Only Walt Disney World and Tokyo Disney are barred from having Marvel characters in its parks, due to contractual obligations to Universal and Universal’s use of Marvel characters in the region.[25]However, this only includes characters Universal is currently using, other characters in their ”families” (Spider-Man, X-Men, Avengers, Fantastic Four, etc.), the villains associated with said characters, and the Marvel name.[26] This clause has allowed Walt Disney World to have meet and greets, merchandise, attractions and more with other Marvel characters not associated with the characters at Islands of Adventure, such as Star-Lord and Gamora from Guardians of the Galaxy.[27][28]

Toon Lagoon[edit]

Dudley Do-Right’s Ripsaw Falls

Toon Lagoon is based on the comic strip characters of King Features Syndicate and Jay Ward. The area focuses on water-based rides (hence the name) and features 3 counter-service restaurants.

Toon Lagoon features three main attractions. Dudley Do-Right’s Ripsaw Falls is a traditional log flume combined with roller coaster track based on the Dudley Do-Right character. Popeye and Bluto’s Bilge-Rat Barges is a river rafting water ride themed after Popeye the Sailor saving Olive Oyl from Bluto. Me Ship, the Olive is a kids’ playground built in and around Popeye’s ship. The three levels of the ship all contain a variety of interactive elements including cannons and hoses which can further soak riders on the Popeye and Bluto’s Bilge-Rat Barges ride. Mat Hoffman’s Aggro Circus is a live seasonal BMX stunt show at the Toon Lagoon Theater which operates during spring break and summer.

Skull Island[edit]

Construction of Skull Island: Reign of Kong (July 2015)

Skull Island is the most recently opened island at the theme park. The area is based on the 2005 film King Kong, directed by Peter Jackson, and the 1976 film King Kong. The area’s sole attraction, Skull Island: Reign of Kong, opened on July 13, 2016. This attraction and island marks the return of the King Kong character to the Universal Orlando Resort, after the Kongfrontation attraction closed at Universal Studios Florida in 2002.

Jurassic Park[edit]

Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park is themed to the film series of the same name. Set after the events of the first film, the area undertakes the guise of the John Hammond‘s dinosaur theme park featured in the series. As such, the area is filled with the attractions and exhibits one would find in the ”real” Jurassic Park, including thrill rides and discovery-based exhibits.

Jurassic Park features five main attractions. Jurassic Park River Adventure, constructed by Superior Rigging & Erection,[29] is a water ride based on Steven Spielberg‘s first film and Michael Crichton‘s novel.
Triceratops Discovery Trail (formerly Triceratops Encounter) is a walkthrough attraction where guests can get up close and interact with a full-scale animated replica of a Triceratops, while a ”veterinary technician” performs a semi-annual exam on the Trike.[30][31] The attraction actually features three different Trikes – Topper, Chris, and Cera.[32][33] All 3 are female. Chris was named after a member of the team that created the dinosaurs who died before the attraction opened.[33] Spar Aerospace (now known as MD Robotics) was contracted to construct the three robotic trikes, each of which are 9 metres (30 ft) long and 3 metres (9.8 ft) high. Universal requested specific requirements for the robots including the ability to replicate breathing (through synchronised rib cage movements), sneezing, snorting, urinating and flatulating.[34][35] Due to maintenance and staffing issues, the trail was closed off in 2005. However, after five years, the attraction reopened in December 2010 for seasonal operation.[31]

Pteranodon Flyers is a steel suspended roller coaster manufactured by Setpoint USA. Riders join the queue located within Camp Jurassic. Pteranodon Flyers features three two-seater cars suspended on a track. The cars are pulled up a hill and then travel a circuit around Camp Jurassic at low speed before returning to the station.[36][37] Due to the low capacity of the ride, only those who are between 36 and 56 inches (91 and 140 cm) or those with a child of that height may ride.[36] The Universal Express pass cannot be used on this attraction due to the ride’s low capacity.[38][39] A similar ride, Canopy Flyer exists at Universal Studios Singapore.[40]

Camp Jurassic is a children’s play area centered around an imported 50-foot (15 m) tall Banyan tree. It features a variety of play elements including slides, nets, water cannons and fountains. Pteranodon Flyers’ queue is located within Camp Jurassic.[41]–>

The Wizarding World of Harry Potter – Hogsmeade Village[edit]

Entrance to Hogsmeade Village at The Wizarding World of Harry Potter

The Wizarding World of Harry Potter – Hogsmeade Village is themed around the Harry Potter universe, authored by J. K. Rowling. It officially opened to the public on June 18, 2010. On May 31, 2007, Universal announced that it had secured the licensing rights from Warner Bros. and Rowling to incorporate the Harry Potter franchise to Islands of Adventure.[42] The 20-acre (81,000 m2) island features attractions, shops and restaurants set inside such locations as the Forbidden Forest, Hogsmeade Village and the iconic Hogwarts Castle. Ground breaking began in 2007, with the official opening scheduled for June 18, 2010, as announced on March 25, 2010. As part of the promotion for the then-upcoming area, a behind-the-scenes documentary on production of the park section is included on the Blu-ray and DVD release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.[43]

In the Wizarding World of Harry Potter there are five main attractions. Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey, the section’s signature attraction, is located inside Hogwarts Castle and takes guests through scenes inspired by the Potter books and films.[44]

Dragon Challenge, previously known as Dueling Dragons, is a pair of intertwined inverted roller coasters.[44]

Flight of the Hippogriff, previously known as Flying Unicorn, is a Vekoma junior roller coaster.[44]

The Hogwarts Express is a train ride that transports visitors between Hogsmeade in Islands of Adventure and Diagon Alley in Universal Studios Florida.

Ollivanders is an interactive shopping experience based on the Harry Potter Ollivanders wand shop.

There is also a singing Frog Choir and a Triwizard Spirit Rally held in the town center. These events feature Hogwarts, Beauxbatons, and Durmstrang students.

An expansion of the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, based on the Diagon Alley and London settings from the series, opened on July 8, 2014 at the adjacent Universal Studios Florida park in the former site of the park’s Jaws attraction. The Hogwarts Express attraction connects the two areas of the Wizarding World of Harry Potter in each park.

The Lost Continent[edit]

The Lost Continent is themed to ancient myths and legends, and is divided into two sub-sections; an ancient Arabian marketplace called Sinbad’s Bazzaar, and a GrecianAtlantis-esque Lost City. Formerly, the Lost Continent included a medieval section Merlinwood, but the majority of that area was re-themed for the Wizarding World of Harry Potter. Today the area contains two live-action shows. This land is also home to Mythos, which is one of two full-service restaurants in the park and was voted winner of best theme park restaurant by Theme Park Insider for six successive years between 2003 and 2008.[45][46][47]

There are three main attractions in the Lost Continent. The Eighth Voyage of Sinbad is a live-action stunt show located in the ancient Arabia section. In front of this show is The Mystic Fountain that entertains and interacts with guests.

Poseidon‘s Fury is an indoor special-effects show located in the Lost City section.

Seuss Landing[edit]

Seuss Landing

Seuss Landing is based on the works of author Dr. Seuss. The island features several Seuss-themed attractions, especially geared towards small children, as well as a Green Eggs and Ham Cafe and Circus McGurkus restaurant. As in the books, one of the unique characteristics of this area is that there is not a single straight line anywhere.[48] Palm trees bent by the winds of Hurricane Andrew were even planted in the area to continue this theme.

The area is home to a variety of dining outlets and merchandise shops. Food and beverage items can be purchased from Circus McGurkus Cafe Stoo-pendous (The High in the Sky Seuss Trolley Train Ride), Green Eggs and Ham Cafe (opened seasonally), Hop on Pop Ice Cream Shop, and Moose Juice, Goose Juice. Merchandise items can be bought from a variety of themed stores including Cats, Hats & Things (The Cat in the Hat), All The Books You Can Read (The High in the Sky Seuss Trolley Train Ride), Snookers & Snookers Sweet Candy Cookers, and Mulberry Street Stores Trading Co.

Seuss Landing includes six attractions inspired by Dr. Seuss’ books. The Cat in the Hat is a dark ride that takes guests through the Dr. Seuss story of the same name.[49] The High in the Sky Seuss Trolley Train Ride is a twin-tracked tour above and around Seuss Landing. One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish is a spinning ride with a musical riddle that will help riders escape water-spitting fish. Caro-Seuss-el is a Seuss themed carousel. Oh, The Stories You’ll Hear is a stage show based on the Dr. Seuss books and characters. If I Ran the Zoo is an interactive play zone for kids.

Park characters[edit]

Islands of Adventure has a number of costumed characters. The following is a list of characters that may be seen in the park:

Seen in Marvel Super Hero Island

Seen in Toon Lagoon

Seen in Port of Entry

Seen in The Wizarding World

  • Frog Choir
  • Beauxbatons Academy and Durmstrang Institute students (Triwizard Spirit Rally)
Seen in Seuss Landing

  • The Cat in the Hat
  • Thing One and Thing Two
  • Sam I Am
  • The Grinch
  • The Lorax
  • Guy (From ”Green Eggs and Ham”)

Universal’s Express Pass[edit]

Main article: Express Pass

Several attractions in Islands of Adventure allow guests to utilize Express Pass. This pass admits users to a separate line for the attraction, which is given priority status when boarding. Express Pass is not a virtual queuing service. Instead, passholders may enter the ”Universal Express” line whenever they wish. The price of this pass is not included in the charge for park admission.

Attendance[edit]

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Worldwide rank
5,290,000[50] 4,267,000[51] 5,949,000[52] 7,674,000[53] 7,981,000[4] 8,141,000[4] 8,141,000 [54] 8,792,000 [55] 12

See also[edit]

RANK SYSTEM OF THE EMPIRE IN STAR WARS

Rank insignia of the Galactic Empire/old version

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Rank insignia of the Galactic Empire refers to badges of military rank which were used by officers of the Imperial Military. All officers in the Service wore one or another of these insignia.

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Officer ranks

In 0 BBY, Imperial officers of the Galactic Empire wore insignia consisting of a confusing collection of multi-colored rank squares on the left breast of the officer’s uniform with a combination of several metal cylinders to either side of the rank badge. By the next few years, the rank squares had become a much simpler collection of red and blue squares with the code cylinders still in use.

In the Galactic Civil War, most Imperial officers were verbally addressed as ”Commander” with the exception of Admirals, such as Admiral Kendal Ozzel and Piett who were addressed as ”Admiral”. It should be noted that ”commander” is an acceptable form of address for captains, majors, colonels, or anyone of any rank who commands a military unit. Grand Moff Tarkin was referred to as ”Governor”. With such generic terms, the Star Wars films give little hint to a system of ranks and insignia. Over the years, however, the Expanded Universe has established a system of ranks and insignia which matches closely to the characters and the ranks and authority which they most likely held.

Navy Rank Army Rank Version One Version Two
Grand Admiral Grand General OldMoff GrandAd
Grand Moff Grand Moff Moff1 Moff2
Moff Moff 115px Moff2
High Admiral Surface Marshal HighAdm2 HighAdm
Fleet Admiral High General OldFltAdm SWARSFLTADM
Admiral General OldAdm ImpAdmiral
Vice Admiral Lieutenant General ImpViceAdm2 ImpViceAdm
Rear Admiral Major General ImpRADM2 ImpRADM
Commodore Brigadier ImpBrigadier 75px
Captain of the Line High Colonel HighColonel LineCaptain
Captain Colonel ImpColonel ImpCaptain
Commander Lieutenant Colonel ImpLTCOL ImpCommander
Lieutenant Commander Major ImpMajor ImpLCDR
Lieutenant Captain ImpO-3 ImpLT
Sublieutenant Lieutenant Imp1Lt ImpLTsub
Ensign Second Lieutenant Imp2Lt ImpEnsign
Midshipman Officer Candidate MIDN MIDN

Enlisted ranks

Imperial enlisted personnel have never been shown to have any type of insignia, but do have various types of uniforms which could indicate seniority among the enlisted rank structure. The uniforms appear to range from Soldiers and Technicians, to Sergeants and Naval NCOs, as well as Warrant Officers and Command Sergeants. Each of these groups is shown in the feature films to have various types of uniforms but never have been shown wearing any type of identifying insignia.

Stormtroopers

Stormtroopers apparently use the same rank system as the Imperial Army, but rarely wear any type of outward insignia. It is mentioned that Stormtroopers most likely have an identification scanner, built into their helmets, which can determine the rank and seniority of other stormtroopers. This does not explain, however, the colored shoulder pads used by Stormtroopers on Tatooine. Also, in the Battle of Hoth, a stormtrooper is seen wearing the insignia of an Army Captain on his armor. It is assumed that such insignia display is for the benefit of non-stormtrooper personnel.

In the higher ranks of the Stormtroopers, it can be reasonably assumed that the senior Stormtrooper officers do not wear the Battle Armor on a regular basis, thus a different uniform, for the more casual ”office” setting, would most likely be worn. This explains a number of Imperial officers, seen in the feature films directing groups of Stormtroopers, who appear to be wearing solid black uniforms with rank badges. Such personnel are most likely Stormtrooper commanders whose daily duties do not necessitate the regular wearing of battle armor.

Starfighter Corps

The Imperial pilots of the Starfighter Corps are a subject of great debate. One school of thought is that such personnel are members of the Imperial Navy while another possibility exists that the starfighters comprise an entire separate branch of service. Several different literature sources have provided a feasible rank structure for the Starfighter Corps, with indications that Starfighter pilots are Imperial officers with ranks similar to the Army and Navy combined. No starfighter pilot has ever been seen wearing rank insignia but this may have been since the pilots were only seen in flight suits. It is plausible that a separate duty uniform exists, upon which rank insignia may be displayed.

A conjectural rank system for the Imperial Starfighter Corps is as follows

  • High Marshal (High Admiral)
  • Force Marshal (Fleet Admiral)
  • Chief Marshal (Admiral)
  • Marshall (Vice Admiral)
  • Vice Marshal (Rear Admiral)
  • Flight Commodore (Commodore)
  • Group Captain (Captain)
  • Wing Commander (Commander)
  • Squadron Leader (Lieutenant Commander)
  • Flight Lieutenant (Lieutenant)
  • Flying Officer (Sub-Lieutenant)
  • Pilot Officer (Ensign)
  • Flight Cadet (Midshipman)

Corresponding Imperial Navy rank listed as comparison

Imperial Security Bureau

Members of the Imperial Security Bureau, or the ”ISB”, have only been seen for a brief period of time, aboard the Death Star. A white uniformed ISB Colonel, Wullf Yularen, was in the Death Star conference room along with two ISB NCOs walking past the Death Star main elevator area. In both cases, the ISB personnel were shown to be wearing white uniforms with rank insignia corresponding to Imperial Army and Navy personnel. It is possible that the ISB uses the same insignia, with different rank titles, or that the ISB ranks are identical to those of the Imperial Army.

Behind the scenes

Alternate versions

Rank Alternate Insignia
Officer Candidate OFFCDT
Lieutenant ImpLT2
Major ImpISBMajor
Colonel ImpColonel2
Commodore ImpCommodoreAlt
Major General ImpMajorGeneral
Rear Admiral ImpRearAdmiral
High Admiral ImpHighAdmiral

The insignia scheme devised in A New Hope created an interesting ambiguity in that a review of the film shows some Imperial characters who have apparently the same rank and position, yet display different versions of insignia. This problem recurs in the Star Wars Expanded Universe in that Imperial officers of the same rank wear different badges of office.

The possibility exists that such officers serve in different branches of the service or that the difference in insignia is a means to display seniority or some other badge of distinction. This has never been determined exactly, however, leaving the viewing audience to speculate.

The chart displayed to the right indicates alternate versions of Imperial insignia, when applying to the Version One method seen in A New Hope.

Additional info

In the film Return of the Jedi, a wardrobe problem undiscovered until midway through production resulted in all Imperial characters wearing the same insignia, being that of an Imperial Navy Commander. Thus, the Imperial insignia in Return of the Jedi are often ignored.

The rank of Grand Admiral was first mentioned in the Timothy Zahn novels and is considered the senior most rank of the entire Imperial Service. Grand Admirals, and their Imperial Army counterparts Grand Generals are authorized to wear white uniforms with gold shoulder boards, in addition to the standard badge of rank.

The Empire Strikes Back demonstrated that the Imperial Navy and Army, while using the same rank badges, differentiate between the two services by the spacing of the colored squares on the badge itself. Imperial Army officers use rank badges with thin rank squares on a grey metal frame, while Navy officers display flush rank squares with no spacing in-between. This method of separating the two services apparently did not apply to the rank insignia of A New Hope, since all Imperial personnel, both Army and Navy, appeared to wear the same style of rank badge.

The LucasArts Flight Simulator game Star Wars: TIE Fighter provides a much simpler version of Starfighter Ranks as listed below.

  • Grand Admiral
  • Admiral
  • Vice Admiral
  • General
  • Colonel
  • Major
  • Commander
  • Captain
  • Lieutenant
  • Flight Officer
  • Flight Cadet

Given that the flight simulator ranks appear overly simplified and combine Navy and Army titles indiscriminately, most Star Wars sources consider the TIE Fighter ranks to be contradictory and this rank system is generally ignored.

Insignia sources

The information displayed in this article indicates one possible sequence of insignia order based on several different Star Wars literature sources, conjectural information, and information seen in the feature films and other live entertainment productions.

Neither George Lucas or LucasArts has ever published an established insignia guide for either the Galactic Empire or the Rebel Alliance. In the case of the Empire, however, A New Hope seemed to establish a basic system that the more squares and code cylinders a character wore, the more important of a position they held. This idea carried over into The Empire Strikes Back, however in that film the higher ranking characters wore more rank squares but fewer code cylinders.

With the information provided in the feature films somewhat limited, the Expanded Universe has been left with the task of creating a rank and insignia system which holds to the information of the feature films and the additional information put forth in Star Wars literature and other film and televison productions. The following sources, therefore, were used in preparing this article.

Category:Military ranks

Category:Galactic Empire

TRESPASSER CODES

FABIEN SANGLARD’S WEBSITE

JUNE 10TH, 2014

JURASSIC PARK: TRESPASSER CG SOURCE CODE REVIEW

Jurassic Park: Trespasser is an unique piece of software: It is a game that has managed to reach both infamous and cult status.

Released in October 1998 after a three years development cycle, it was unanimouslydestroyed by critics. But it did not fail by much and managed to grow an impressive mass of fans that wrote editors, released patches, reverse-engineered the assets, added features, produced new dinosaurs, levels and even started a remake. 20 years later, bloggers still write about it and the post-mortem by Richard Wyckoff is one of the most fascinating behind-the-scene tale I have ever read.

From a technology standing point, Trespasser engine is a milestone in the history of realtime CG: It demonstrated that physics and outdoor environments were indeed possible.

During my exploration, I found a special flavor of C++ that was representative of the game final result: Genius and Talent ultimately impaired by ambition and it’s resulting complexity.

Moon shot and high expectations

Jurassic Park: Trespasser was a moon shot. An attempt to make the impossible become reality powered by a lot of money and insanely talented developers/artists. But it happened during the late 90s which saw widespread adoption of Internet: Online magazine florished, developers were getting interviews, news and rumors circulated fast and high expectations resulted from customers (a phenomenon later exhacerbated during the development of Daikatana).

The trailer demonstrated unprecedented interactivity and graphisms :


CD-Rom were also becoming common. Embedded in magazines they often contained videos and interview of developers. Here are Seamus Blackley (Lead Programmer) and Terry Izumi (Art Director) talking for Next Generation :


Many impressive ”screenshot” were exchanged on the internet :


Even the game box was quite appealing:

The printed press, usually more reserved was also praising the game:

Wired (March, 1997):

Jurassic Game Flouts Hyper-Real Physics

Game Master (December, 1998):

Next Generation (November, 1997) :

The list of features was crazy :

  • Bump-mapped dinosaur skin.
  • Outdoor environments with hundreds of trees.
  • Inverse kinematics (no predetermined animation).
  • Realtime shadows.
  • Physic engine.
  • Physic based sound engine.

Gamers were crazy too. But after the dissapointment brilliantly naratted by Research Indicates in ”Let’s play Trespasser”:

I decided I wanted to know how it worked.

Source Code: First contact

The source code has never been officially released but it is everywhere on the internet. I will obviously not provide a link to the source or even show code snippets but I think to provide a roadmap for historical value is acceptable and will probably help fellow code readers.

The solution is for Visual Studio 6.0 (development started on VS 4.1 but C++ support was not satisfactory: The team updated the dev tools as soon as a new version became available). It can be automatically converted to a modern version of Visual Studio (2008/2010/2012). Attempting to compile shows that the source code has heavily suffered from erosion: C++ has evolved a lot since 1998 and certain things are not permited anymore (like things that now require the typename keyword).

Before starting to open files and read, I ran a few metrics since cloc can give an idea of the volume of code to read:

    fabiensanglard$ cloc jp2_pc
    1596 text files.
    1555 unique files.                                          
     418 files ignored.

    http://cloc.sourceforge.net v 1.60  T=14.08 s (88.1 files/s, 40859.1 lines/s)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Language                     files          blank        comment           code
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    C++                            469          64881          86607         195287
    C/C++ Header                   762          32170          89234         105606
    C                                2            253            177            884
    DOS Batch                        7              5              0            174
    Teamcenter def                   1              0              0              8
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    SUM:                          1241          97309         176018         301959
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Standing alone, those numbers don’t mean much. But comparing them to others games (Quake,Doom,Duke3D,…) helps a lot:

 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Game             Year         files         blank         comment          code
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Wolfenstein3D    1992           80           7223           7516          27311
    Doom             1993          149          10213          10234          39080
    Duke 3D          1996          182          18537          11364          77166
    Quake 1          1996          543          45550          38262         171065
    Quake 2          1997          399          37743          31735         163928 
    Trespasser       1998         1241          97309         176018         301959 
    Quake 3          1999          799          65988          93977         313311
    Doom  3          2004         1466         137589         164894         593899
    Doom iOS         2009          237          15080          24054          70766
    Wolfenstein iOS  2009          326          20403          20170          63609
    Doom  3 BFG      2012          977          92735         119965         363239
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The volume of code is twice more than other titles released at the same time. The volume is very representative of the complexity of the engine and the collosal scope of features. What really stands out is the volume of comment: Trespasser code base is exceptionnaly well commented and that is usually an indication of high skills.

The solution contains 23 projects which clearly show the different subsystems but I suspect was done to make compile time bearable. Even on a modern machine a full built take close to 10mn. I would not be surprised if 1998 and its lack of precompiled header took an hour for a full build.

An interview of Seamus Blackley (Lead developer on Trespasser) shows that compile time was a problem back in the days:

   Qtrescom.org    : What fraction of the development time was spent waiting on the C++ compiler?

   Seamus Blackley : It felt like 103%

Details of each projects :

Projects Generates Notes:
AI Artificial Intelligence subsystem A lot of code unused since most traits had to be disabled.
AI Test JP2_PC.exe A standalone program allowing to test AI with graphics.
Audio Audio.lib The audio sub-system static library featuring the ”real time Foley”.
Bug Bugs.exe A project concentrating all compiler errors. Since the team switched from VS4 to VS4.1 to VS4.2 to VS6.0 it was usefull
CollisionEditor CollisionEditor.exe Sound effects editor to test the audio engine (very powerful at the time)
EntityDBase EntityDBase.lib Classes representing all objects in the game.
File File.lib Abstraction classes for File and Images, used to build the Groff archives.
File Test File Test for the file and image abstractions.
Game Game.lib Glue, triggers, Player, Gun classes.
GeomDBase GeomDBase.lib The 3D representation (Geometry) of all objects defined in EntityDBase.
GroffBuild GroffBuild.exe The tool in charge of gathering all game assets (3d,sounds,maps) in one GOFF file.
GroffExp GroffExp.dle The DLL loaded by 3DS Max that export all data to GOFF sections. This was originally outsourced to an other dev and is standalone.
GUIApp GUIApp.exe A wrapper around the game. The GUI allows to change the game values at runtime for testing. Like the console allowing to change the cvar in Quake engines.
Loader Loader.lib The library loading GOFF assets to RAM.
Math Math.lib The math library (features a fInvSqrt that is not as good as QuakeIII’s InvSqrt since it uses a lookup table but also uses Newton-Raphson).
Math Test MathTest.exe A few functions to test the speed of the math routines.
Physics Physics.lib The pelvis heavy, penalty force based Physic engine library.
PhysicsTest PhysicsTest.exe A sandbox level where physic can be tested.
PipeLineTest PipeLineTest.exe Testbed for the rendering pipeline
Processor Processor.dll Uses CPUID to detect 8086, 80286, 28386 or a 80486, Pentium, K6-3and K7, Detect Floating Point Unit and CPU speed. Loaded at runtime by System project in order to set automatically details level (based on CPU Mhz).
QuantizerTool QuantizerTool.exe Aborted project. Does nothing.
Render3D Render3D.lib The hybrid software/Direct3D renderer.
ScreenRenderDWI ScreenRenderDWI.lib Pentium, PentiumPro and K6_3D specific code ASM optimized code for scanline and cache rendering. Direct3D code.
Std Std.lib Extension of STL. An horrible mess of specific containers of containers of set of hashmap. Arg.
System System.lib Contains scheduler, Virtual Memory. Thread control. SetupForSelfModifyingCode (via modify the page tables associated with the application). Many things are not used.
trespass trespass.exe The game we played.
View View.lib Raster to window code. Blitter, DirectDraw, Direct3D, software palette viewers.
WaveTest WaveTest.exe Shell to test wave modeling.
WinShell WinShell.lib win32 windows creation and management library

The project names and the post-mortem are giving us a good idea of the production pipeline :

  1. Artist and game designer used 3D Studio Max.
  2. When a level was ready, it was exported (GroffExp).
  3. All assets were compiled into a resource file GROFF (GroffBuild).
  4. The engine worked on all subsystems and generated the game (trespass).
  5. Debugging and research was done with a secondary screen displaying GUIAPP, allowing to change the engine settings at runtime.

Renderer

The 3D Renderer is based on Depth Sorting Algorithm coupled with a quadtree sliced map to help remove as many polygons as possible. There is actually a comment in the code which indicate the implementation is taken straight from ”pages 673 to 675 in ”Computer Graphics: Principles and Practices by Foley, Van Dam et al”. Here are the pages (and I highly recommend you to buy the book):

The engine walks the map quadtree recursively, discarding as much geometry (terrain and objects) as possible via backface culling and frustum culling. The list of surviving polygon is then sorted by depth and the scene is sent to the rasterizer: Back to front in one batch as illustrated by the wikipedia drawing :


This method generates a visually correct scene but can potentially lead to overdraw that waste a lot of CPU cycles. A typical worse case scenario would be the player in front of mountains but inside a house :

The engine would first rasterize all the mountains in the back:

Only to overwrite every single pixel with the front objects such as walls, stairs and crates resulting in a terrible waste :

Even though the rasterizer was fast hand optimized ASM (even exploiting floating point SIMD from AMD processor K6), something had to be done in order to limit overdraw. The developers asked the 3DS Max designer to place ”occluders” on the map : Invisible surfaces that were used to create occluding volumes. Here they are in gray on the right image:

Those occluders were used to construct occluding volume and discard more primitives during the quadtree rundown. Each frame the quadtree was used to find all the occluders intersecting the view frustum. By connecting the player’s point of view through each occluder vertice, an occluding volume was created. Each primitive retrieved via the quadtree was hence tested not only against the view frustum but also against each occluding volume. This is a technique that reminded me a lot of shadow volumes.

This technique was instrumental when the player was inside a building but it also to important to limit overdraw in pure outdoor scenes. Items behind a hill could be discarded this way so occluders are also placed within hills and terrain curves :

This mechanism worked well but it could be problem if the designers placed them poorly. In the following scene, at first sight things looks fine but if we look closer we can see that occluder are ”sticking out”: Crossing that part would result in objects suddenly appearing:

A other occurence at the end of the first level :

Not to mention the problems related to generating the terrain on the fly based on wavelet: Sometimes occluders did not match the geometry :/ !

The engine also used two other big tricks to lower the poly count: The most famous was ”object caching”: While rendering objects, the distant ones would be rendered to a cache and drawn as sprite on a quad. This trick originally resulted in mixed results since the mesh would remain a sprite too close from the player and changed from 2D to 3D in a very noticeable way as see in the two next images :

The pixelating problems were partly corrected in a patch 1.1 (see comparative in this no so kind review). There were still issues related to depth correctness since the trick turned a volume turned into a plane but visual results were much more acceptable as seen on the right image (Trespasser v1.1):

An other less known trick to reduce the number of primitive to rasterize was to generate the terrain poly on the fly via wavelets. Wavelets can be used in order to generate lower detail version of a mesh. Depending on the distance of the terrain to draw, a specific Level Of Detail wavelet was selected. If you want to read deeper into this topic, here are two very good PDFs:

The renderer high level pipeline is a follow.

  • For each frame :
    1. Update the terrain and generate appropriate distance related LOD polygons using wavelet.
    2. Draw skybox (called backdrop).
    3. Walk the quadTree and find occluders within the view frustum, use them to build occlusion volume tetrahedron.
    4. Walk the quadTree to select all terrain polygons: Discard via backface culling, frustum culling and occlusion culling.
    5. Walk the quadTree to select all objects meshes: Discard via backface culling, frustum culling and occlusion culling. For distant objects, generate a proxy and render to a cache that is then rendered as a sprite.
    6. If shadow is enabled: Generate a shadowmap .
    7. Sort all polygons far to near using the Depth Sorting algorithm.
    8. Rasterize the full scene. Use bumpmapping and shadowmapping.

Here is the first scene with each steps. In this scene, overdraw is severely limited (the mountains polygon are generated but not rasterized, some overdraw occurs where crates and walls are in front of each others):

Note : The C++ polymorphism really was beautiful when shadow was enabled: An instance of the renderer pipeline templated with a depth only rasterizer generated the shadow map. That part of the code was extremely elegant.

The same scene viewed from above (notice the occluders placed within the mountains in the distance):

The rasterizer code was hard to read since it features a lot of ASM and ”old” AMD K6-2 3DNow! instructions but it was state of the art especially when bumpmapping T-Rex skin :

In the end, the renderer did no have the elegance of Quake II software renderer ”zero overdraw (video)” but thanks to a few tricks, it worked well enough.

The rest and the C++ box of chocolate

The rest of the engine looked interesting (I.A, Physics, ”real time Foley” Sound) and I would have loved to read and write more about it. Unfortunately the code is hard to read for me and the experimental/research/release date rush aspects of it felt very real. Once I figured the 3D renderer, my motivation vanished.

On top of time constraints and research aspects, I felt like the team was pushing C++ at a time it should’t have:

  • The code is full of cursing against Visual Studio bugs.
  • The code is full of cursing against slow generated code.
  • A full build took forever.

Trivia : The first things one should run on a new codebase are the following greps :

    find . -exec grep --with-filename --ignore-case fuck   {}   \; 2>/dev/null
    find . -exec grep --with-filename --ignore-case shit   {}   \; 2>/dev/null
    find . -exec grep --with-filename --ignore-case hack   {}   \; 2>/dev/null
    find . -exec grep --with-filename --ignore-case lame   {}   \; 2>/dev/null
    find . -exec grep --with-filename --ignore-case stupid {}   \; 2>/dev/null

I was not a game developer in the 90s but I wonder if C++ was a good choice (many did not recommend it) when the solid C with Watcom was available.

My second issue with C++ is that a C++ codebase it is like a box of chocolate: You never know what flavor you are going to get :

    I think C++ was pushed well beyond its complexity threshold and yet there are a lot of people programming it. But what you do is you
    force people to subset it. So almost every shop that I know of that uses C++ says, “Yes, we’re using C++ but we’re not doing 
    multiple-implementation inheritance and we’re not using operator overloading.” There are just a bunch of features that you’re not going
    to use because the complexity of the resulting code is too high. And I don’t think it’s good when you have to start doing that. You 
    lose this programmer portability where everyone can read everyone else’s code, which I think is such a good thing.

                                                                                                                     - Joshua Bloch (source)

Or more simply :

        

          With C++, it’s possible to make code that isn’t understandable by anyone, with C, this is very hard. 

                                                                                                                     — Mike Abrash (source)

In the case of Trespasser the subset selected was STL, smart pointers and extreme metaprogramming which is not a flavor I really enjoy. I will probably get back to it one day when I am more comfortable with it.

For now I will feel better thinking I am not alone. Really Really not alone 🙂 !

Closing up

In the end, the source code of Jurassic Park: Trespasser re-inforced the sense of a missed opportunity which Seamus Blackley summarized in his an interview with trecom.org:

   Q: Trespasser is unfortunately known for not bringing in the sales it deserved. If you could change one thing about the production what 
      would you do differently?

   A: I would have assigned the 25-year-old Seamus a strong producer, who would have bullied him to restrict the scope of innovation to 
      something manageable. I wanted to make this beautiful vision that I had for this amazing island become real, and I was too young 
      and stupid to realize that less is more.


Less is more. Enough said.

Recommended readings

   TreCom:    The physics system in Trespasser was your baby, how much work went into developing the setup achieved in the final product and 
              how much heart ache came from the realization that the hardware at the time simply did not support the complexity of some ideas 
              for  gameplay?

   SBlackley: Well, in order to make it fast enough, it had to be compromised in various ways. Today, there’s power to do analytic constraint 
              and such. In the 90s, it was tough. The real issue, honestly, was that it was too much for me to do physics and also be in charge,
              and I never figured out how to fix that. Back then, there were no books or libraries on game physics, it was all research, and 
              it was really, really hard.


Two excellent books are availables now :

Pot Pourri

All of Trescom.org

Comments

Fabien Sanglard @2014

DEFENSES

Defenses

War.png

Defenses are stationary structures built on your planets to help defend against enemy ships. They are usually considerably cheaper than ships for the same amount of power, but cannot be used in attacks or to defend planets other than the one they are built on.In combat, all of the defender’s defenses will fight just as ships do against an attacker. Unlike ships, however, at the end of the battle each defense has a 70% chance of being rebuilt instantly for free. Note that the chance to be rebuilt applies on an individual unit level, so the 70% rebuild rate is only an expected value, not a guarantee (or limitation).

Contents

[hide]

Building

Just like ships, defenses may require certain technologies and shipyard levels. They are built at the shipyard and take time to build, depending on their cost. They follow the same formula as ships, which is

Time(hours) =
Ore Cost + Crystal Cost
2500 * (1+Shipyard Level)

To add a unit to the queue, click the ”add to build queue” button after entering the amount of each unit you wish to build in the field above the button (the default is 1). Once you put a build order into the queue it cannot be removed. You can, however, rearrange the order in which your defenses and ships are built by clicking an item and dragging it to the desired spot. You cannot move the item currently being built.
Unlike buildings, defenses do not take up planetary fields, so any planet can have unlimited defenses. Also unlike ships, defenses destroyed in combat do not get added to the debris field.

Defense Descriptions

Missile battery.png Missile Battery: The most primitive weapon in the universe, the Missile Battery uses cheap combustion-powered explosives to deter light enemy invaders.
Laser cannon.png Laser Cannon: Slight upgrade to the Missile Battery. The Laser Cannon uses high-powered focused beams of light to defend your base.
Pulse cannon.png Pulse Cannon: The Laser Cannon‘s bigger brother, the Pulse Cannon packs considerably more punch and can withstand enemy attacks better.
Particle cannon.png Particle Cannon: The Particle Cannon has a massive Shield Rating and can withstand hits from most ships, making it an attractive defense against many strong enemy invaders.
Gauss cannon.png Gauss Cannon: The Gauss Cannon uses a magnetic field to hurl high-density metal slugs at enemy invaders. Significantly more firepower than its predecessors, and astonishing Hull Rating.
Plasma cannon.png Plasma Cannon: The most powerful defense ever created. Utilizes Plasma Technology to create a giant wave of plasma that has the ability to neutralize even the mighty Athena Battleship in one shot.
Anti-ballistic missile.png Anti-Ballistic Missile: The only way to defend against a strike by an opponent’s Interplanetary Ballistic Missiles. These are an automatic base defense.
Decoy.png Decoy: The decoy is a defensive structure designed to absorb large hits. While it has no offense, its high shields and the fact that nothing Rapid Fires against it makes the decoy able to withstand large amounts of fire, making it a great addition to a defensive position. You may only have one of each decoy at a time.
Large decoy.png Large Decoy: The Large Decoy functions the same as the regular Decoy, but has even higher shield and hull. Like the regular Decoy, you can only have one.

(The Space Mine is only available in Nova. Click the link for pic and description.)

Space Mine

Defense Specifications

This does not include rapid fire against ships, only defenses. For rapid fire against Ships, see: Ships

Defense Unit Hull Rating Shield Rating Weapons Rating Rapid Fire Against This Unit
Missile Battery 200 20 80 Poseidon Cruiser x10, Ares Bomber x20, Zeus x200
Laser Cannon 200 25 100 Prometheus Destroyer x10, Ares Bomber x20, Zeus x200
Pulse Cannon 800 100 250 Ares Bomber x10, Zeus x100
Particle Cannon 800 500 150 Ares Bomber x10, Zeus x100
Gauss Cannon 3,500 200 1,100 Zeus x50
Plasma Cannon 10,000 300 3,000 none
Decoy 2,000 2,000 0 none
Large Decoy 10,000 10,000 0 none

Costs and Specifications

Defense Unit Ore Crystal Hydrogen Shipyard Research
Missile Battery 2,000 0 0 Level 1
Laser Cannon 1,500 500 0 Level 2 Energy Tech (Level 1), Laser Tech (Level 2)
Pulse Cannon 6,000 2,000 0 Level 4 Energy Tech (Level 3), Laser Tech (Level 6)
Particle Cannon 2,000 6,000 0 Level 4 Particle Tech (Level 4)
Gauss Cannon 20,000 15,000 2,000 Level 6 Weapons Tech (Level 3), Energy Tech (Level 6), Shield Tech (Level 1)
Plasma Cannon 50,000 50,000 30,000 Level 8 Plasma Tech (Level 7)
Decoy 10,000 10,000 0 Level 1 Shield Tech (Level 2)
Large Decoy 50,000 50,000 0 Level 6 Shield Tech (Level 6)

See also

RESEARCH

Default
RESEARCH LAB
Unlock and improve new technologies.Hire a Scientist for 25% Faster Research
Researching: Shield Tech (Level 4)
0% (00:41:01)
Laser_tech
Laser Tech
LEVEL6
TIME:
02:03:25
ORE:
12,800
CRYSTAL:
6,400
HYDROGEN:
0
Armor_tech
TIME:
01:42:51
ORE:
16,000
CRYSTAL:
0
HYDROGEN:
0
Weapons_tech
TIME:
00:51:25
ORE:
6,400
CRYSTAL:
1,600
HYDROGEN:
0
Shield_tech
CANCEL

TIME:
00:41:08
ORE:
1,600
CRYSTAL:
4,800
HYDROGEN:
0
Jet_drive
TIME:
02:44:34
ORE:
25,600
CRYSTAL:
0
HYDROGEN:
38,400
Ai_tech
TIME:
00:41:08
ORE:
0
CRYSTAL:
6,400
HYDROGEN:
9,600
Energy_tech
Energy Tech
LEVEL3
TIME:
00:41:08
ORE:
0
CRYSTAL:
6,400
HYDROGEN:
3,200
Espionage_tech
TIME:
04:06:51
ORE:
6,400
CRYSTAL:
32,000
HYDROGEN:
6,400
Pulse_drive
TIME:
10:17:08
ORE:
32,000
CRYSTAL:
64,000
HYDROGEN:
9,600
Expedition_tech
Expedition Tech
TIME:
01:17:08
ORE:
4,000
CRYSTAL:
8,000
HYDROGEN:
1,000
To unlock the next tech you need Energy Tech (level 4).
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RANK SYSTEM IN STARDRIFT EMPIRES

Default
RANKING GUIDE
See where you compare with other users

USER

Insignia Rank Percentile
Rank040 Supreme Conqueror Top Rank
Rank039 Grand Emperor 99.9%
Rank038 Emperor 99.5%
Rank037 Grand Warlord 99.0%
Rank036 High Warlord 98.5%
Rank035 Warlord 98.0%
Rank034 Supreme Commander 97.5%
Rank033 Grand Admiral 96.5%
Rank032 Fleet Admiral 95.0%
Rank031 Admiral 93.0%
Rank030 Vice Admiral 90.5%
Rank029 Senior Commodore 87.5%
Rank028 Junior Commodore 84.0%
Rank027 Master Commander 80.0%
Rank026 Senior Commander 76.0%
Rank025 Junior Commander 71.5%
Rank024 First General 67.0%
Rank023 Major General 62.0%
Rank022 General 57.0%
Rank021 Senior Brigadier 52.0%
Rank020 Junior Brigadier 47.0%
Rank019 Colonel 42.5%
Rank018 Lieutenant Colonel 38.0%
Rank017 Major 34.0%
Rank016 Star Captain 30.0%
Rank015 Senior Lieutenant 26.5%
Rank014 Junior Lieutenant 23.0%
Rank013 Sergeant Major 20.0%
Rank012 Sergeant 17.0%
Rank011 First Officer 14.5%
Rank010 Senior Officer: Class A 12.0%
Rank009 Senior Officer: Class B 10.0%
Rank008 Junior Officer: Class A 8.0%
Rank007 Junior Officer: Class B 6.0%
Rank006 Corporal Major 4.5%
Rank005 Corporal 3.0%
Rank004 Flight Specialist: Class A 2.0%
Rank003 Flight Specialist: Class B 1.0%
Rank002 Private: Class A 0.0%
Rank001 Private: Class B Newbie Rank

ALLIANCE

Insignia Rank Percentile
Rank031 Deus Class 100.0%
Rank030 Caesaris Class 99.5%
Rank029 Supremacy Class 98.5%
Rank028 Dominatus Class 97.0%
Rank027 Ruler Class 95.0%
Rank026 Animus Class 92.5%
Rank025 Master Class 90.0%
Rank024 Annihilator Class 87.0%
Rank023 Terminus Class 84.0%
Rank022 Omega Class 80.5%
Rank021 Elite Class 77.0%
Rank020 Conqueror Class 73.5%
Rank019 Shadowstar Class 69.5%
Rank018 Overseer Class 65.0%
Rank017 Champion Class 60.0%
Rank016 Exterminator Class 55.0%
Rank015 Destroyer Class 50.0%
Rank014 Alpha Class 45.0%
Rank013 Dreadnaught Class 40.0%
Rank012 Bane Class 35.0%
Rank011 Affliction Class 30.0%
Rank010 Destructor Class 25.0%
Rank009 Assassin Class 20.5%
Rank008 Bomber Class 16.5%
Rank007 Wrecker Class 13.0%
Rank006 Warrior Class 10.0%
Rank005 Battler Class 7.5%
Rank004 Militant Class 5.5%
Rank003 Pillager Class 4.0%
Rank002 Savage Class 2.5%
Rank001 Scrapper Class 0.0%
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ©2017 Blue Frog Gaming. All rights reserved.

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0

BADGES IN STARDRIFT EMPIRES: NOVA

Artemis_squadron_1
LEVEL 1

Artemis Squadron

5

Build an Artemis Class Fighter.

Orbiter_1
LEVEL 1

Orbiter

5

Possess a Helios Class Solar Satellite.

Spy_cartel_1
LEVEL 1

Spy Cartel

5

Possess a Hermes Class Probe.

Battery_embankment_1
LEVEL 1

Battery Embankment

5

Possess a Missile Battery.

Scrapper_1
LEVEL 1

Scrapper

10

Possess a Dionysus Class Recycler.

Laser_defense_1
LEVEL 1

Laser Defense

5

Possess a Laser Cannon.

Know_thy_enemy_1
LEVEL 1

Know Thy Enemy

5

Obtain 5 Espionage reports from Krug, Urcath, or Seeker Encounters.

Locked

Annihilator: 1

10

Destroy 100 ships.

(0 of 100)

Locked

Raider: 1

10

Destroy 50 defenses.

(0 of 50)

Locked

Defender: 1

30

Successfully defend against a fleet of at least 60 ships


Locked

Defiler: 1

20

Destroy 60 ships/defenses in a single attack.


Locked

Sniper

50

Win an attack against an active player from at least 1 galaxy away. Target planet must have at least 2,000 defenses/ships.


Locked

Spy Games: 1

5

Obtain 10 Espionage reports.

(6 of 10)

Locked

Against All Odds

140

Successfully solo defend against a group attack of 3 players with at least 4,000 combined ships.


Locked

Homeland Security: 1

10

Shoot down 1 Interplanetary Ballistic Missile with an Anti-Ballistic Missile.


Locked

Counter Intel: 1

20

Intercept 1 espionage mission.


Locked

Marauder: 1

5

Be the victor of an attack against another player.


Locked

Stonewall: 1

5

Be the victor of a defense against another player.


Locked

Strength In Numbers: 1

20

Perform an attack with at least 100 ships. Target must be an active player with at least 20 defenses/ships.


Locked

Soldier: 1

5

Join a successful Group Attack.


Locked

Onslaught

75

Successfully Group Attack with at least 3 other players at once against a defending force of at least 5,000 defenses/ships.


Locked

Ambush

75

Successfully Group Defend with at least 3 other players at once against an attacking force of at least 5,000 ships.


Locked

Wingman: 1

5

Join a successful Group Defend.


Locked

Fresh Meat

20

Attack 20 inactive players.

(0 of 20)

Locked

Titan Slayer

140

Destroy a Hephaestus Class Attack Platform.


Locked

Big Bang

100

Destroy a Zeus Class Assault Unit.


Locked

Blitzkrieg

50

Take out 500 defensive units in a single attack.


Locked

Deadly Force

50

Solo Attack with a power of at least 1,000,000.


Locked

Impenetrable

50

Solo Defend with a power of at least 1,000,000.


Locked

Arms Dealer: 1

5

Upgrade 1 Shipyard to level 7.

(4 of 7)

Locked

Armed And Dangerous: 1

20

Upgrade 1 Missile Silo to level 2.

(0 of 2)

Locked

Omniscient Observer

75

Upgrade 2 Oracles to level 2.

(0 of 2)

Locked

Spy Cartel: 2

30

Possess 100 Hermes Class Probes.

(56 of 100)

Locked

Orbiter: 2

50

Possess 50 Helios Class Solar Satellites.

(1 of 50)

Locked

Artemis Squadron: 2

30

Possess 50 Artemis Class Fighters.

(4 of 50)

Locked

Atlas Battery

50

Possess 50 Atlas Class Cargos.

(4 of 50)

Locked

Apollo Squadron: 1

5

Build an Apollo Class Fighter.


Locked

Interplanetary Transit: 1

5

Build a Charon Class Transport.


Locked

Hercules Battery: 1

10

Possess a Hercules Class Cargo.


Locked

Scrapper: 2

75

Possess 10 Dionysus Class Recyclers.

(1 of 10)

Locked

Cruiser Flotilla: 1

10

Possess a Poseidon Class Cruiser.


Locked

Athena Armada: 1

10

Possess an Athena Class Battleship.


Locked

Hades Armada: 1

10

Possess a Hades Class Battleship.


Locked

Bomber Force: 1

10

Possess an Ares Class Bomber.


Locked

Destroyer Unit: 1

20

Possess a Prometheus Class Destroyer.


Locked

Battery Embankment: 2

30

Possess 75 Missile Batteries.

(12 of 75)

Locked

Laser Defense: 2

30

Possess 75 Laser Cannons.

(2 of 75)

Locked

Pulse Security: 1

10

Possess a Pulse Cannon.


Locked

Particle Armament: 1

10

Possess a Particle Cannon.


Locked

Gauss Fortification: 1

10

Possess a Gauss Cannon.


Locked

Plasma Resistance: 1

20

Possess a Plasma Cannon.


Locked

Missile Defense: 1

10

Possess an Anti-Ballistic Missile.


Locked

Arms Race: 1

10

Possess an Interplanetary Ballistic Missile.


Locked

Silo Ops: 1

20

Perform 1 Missile Strike.


Locked

Know Thy Enemy: 2

20

Obtain 50 Espionage reports from Krug, Urcath, or Seeker Encounters.

(6 of 50)

Locked

Resistance: 1

20

Be the victor of 15 attacks against the Krug.

(0 of 15)

Locked

Coalition

75

Be the victor of 15 Group Attacks on Floating Colonies.

(0 of 15)

SEEKERS

Seekers

Seekers1.png

The Seekers are a race of non-player characters found throughout the Universe.
A colossal race of supremely intelligent beings that once acted as a Ruler Class over most other races in the known universe. The Seekers are now known to be extinct, and their existence and history is only hinted at by trace artifacts that float through the universe.

Contents

[hide]

Physical Description

Seekers2.png
  • Core essence is depicted as a metaphysical entity comprised of energy.
  • Energy pulls together various parts to take a flowing, human-like form to interact and communicate with humans.
  • Typically assembles into a massive stature approximately ten times the size of a human.
  • Seekers are often portrayed as angelic beings with wings and intricately engraved armor, possibly explaining their association to religious figures.

History

The history of the Seekers themselves is a complete mystery. All that can be detailed is an account of the role that the Seekers played in the lives of humans long ago. The Seekers once served as a ruling class over humans and other races for thousands of years. They possessed an intelligence and technology that was incomparably advanced to that of the humans, which is most likely why they were perceived and worshipped as god-like entities. It is unknown whether the Seekers were truly merciful and kind or malicious and abusive towards their servants, but their depictions hint at a sense of awe and adoration from their followers.
It is thought that the Seekers served as the protectors of the humans by providing them with evolutionary catalysts and divine inspiration. At some point in time, the Seekers completely vanish from the history books due to an anonymous driving force or some cataclysmic event. Some believe that the Seekers were surmounted by an even more powerful race, but such theories are merely guesswork for their inexplicable extinction.

Characteristics and Tendencies

Seekers3.png

The Seekers are no longer in existence, but the abandoned ships of their primordial existence float through the galaxies, haunting them with their ghost-like presence. Their vessels still carry valuable resource payloads to an unknown destination as if the Seekers were still fleeing their coming demise from an unseen enemy.
Attacking these artifacts can perhaps shed some light on the mythological existence of the Seekers, and a better understanding and deciphering of their technology could potentially yield untold power and secrets.

Fleet Information

 
Type Appearance Lifespan (Hours)
Abandoned Cruiser Abandoned cruiser.png 42-66
Abandoned Warship Abandoned warship.png 30-54
Large Abandoned Warship Large abandoned warship.png 18-42
Abandoned Leviathan Abandoned leviathan.png 20-44
Large Abandoned Leviathan Large abandoned leviathan.png 16-40
Abandoned Colossus Platform Abandoned colossus.png 14-38

Artwork

Seekers 1 bg.jpg Seekers 2 bg.jpg Seekers 3 bg.jpg
Seekers 4 bg.jpg Seekers 5 bg.jpg Seekers 6 bg.jpg

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